al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, al-qāʿidah, "the base"), is an armed Islamic group that was started between August 1988 and late 1989.p75 It works as a network, as a stateless army, and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad. Most of the world thinks it is a Takfiri and a terrorist organization.
Members of al-Qaeda have performed many acts of terrorism. Most of these have been done against the United States and Shias. Some of its most well-known attacks have been the September 11 attacks, the bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998, and the attack on the U.S. Navy ship USS Cole in 2000. al-Qaeda has done suicide attacks and simultaneous (at the same time) bombings of different targets.
Among al-Qaeda's goals is for other countries to stop influencing Muslim countries and for a new Islamic caliphate to be made. There have been reports that al-Qaeda believes that Christian and Jewish Islamophobia is trying to destroy Islam and that the killing of bystanders and civilians is religiously justified in jihad.
There have been guesses that there are 500–1,000 operatives in Afghanistan and around 5,000 worldwide. However, there is no confirmation of this.
History[change | change source]
- "...the members of Islamic Jihad and its guiding figure Ayman al-Zawahiri have provided the backbone of [al-Quaeda's] leadership. According to officials in the C.I.A. and the F.B.I., Zawahiri has been responsible for much of the planning of the terrorist operations against the United States".
Death of Osama Bin Laden Laden and current leadership[change | change source]
Death of Abu Yahya al-Libi[change | change source]
Senior al-Qaeda leader Abu Yahya al-Libi was killed in a drone strike on June 4, 2012. He ranked second to Ayman al-Zawahiri at the time. The strike was carried out in the northwest tribal area of Waziristan. The Pakistan Government has protested to the U.S. about the strike.
References[change | change source]
- Moghadam, Assaf (2008). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. Johns Hopkins University. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8018-9055-0.
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Geltzer, Joshua A. (2011). US Counter-Terrorism Strategy and al-Qaeda: Signalling and the Terrorist World-View (Reprint ed.). Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-415-66452-3.
- Wright, Looming Tower, 2006, p. 79
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"Jihadists Want Global Caliphate". ThePolitic.com. July 27, 2005. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
Pike, John. "Al-Qaida". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
Burke, Jason (March 21, 2004). "What exactly does al-Qaeda want?". The Guardian. London.
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"Al-Qaeda's origins and links". BBC News. July 20, 2004. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
Cooley, John K. (Spring 2003). Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism.
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- Study questions Iran-al Qaeda ties, despite U.S. allegations - Reuters
- Treasury Targets Al Qaida Operatives in Iran
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- pronounced /ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KYE-də or /ælˈkeɪdə/ al-KAY-də; alternatively spelled al-Qaida and sometimes al-Qa'ida
- Bergen, Peter L. (2006). The Osama Bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al Qaeda's Leader. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-7892-5.
- United States District Court, Southern District of New York (February 6, 2001). "Testimony of Jamal Ahmad Al-Fadl". United States v. Usama bin Laden. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Archived from the original on December 14, 2001. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
- Gunaratna 2002, pp. 95–96. "al-Qaeda's global network, as we know it today, was created while it was based in Khartoum, from December 1991 till May 1996. To coordinate its overt and covert operations as al-Qaeda's ambitions and resources increased, it developed a decentralised, regional structure. [...] As a global multinational, al-Qaeda makes its constituent nationalities and ethnic groups, of which there are several dozen, responsible for a particular geographic region. Though its modus operandi is cellular, familial relationships play a key role."
- Ross, Jeffrey Ian (2003). The Dynamics of Political Crime. SAGE. ISBN 978-0-8039-7045-8.
- 2010 Amil Khan, The Long Struggle, p 88
- Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. Alfred a Knopf Incorporated. ISBN 0-375-41486-X.
- Fu'ad Husayn 'al-Zarqawi ... "The Second Generation of al-Qa’ida, Part Fourteen," al-Quds al-Arabi, July 13, 2005
- Lawrence Wright 2002. The New Yorker. The man behind Bin Laden Archived 2011-02-24 at the Wayback Machine
- Al-Qaeda commander Abu Yahya al-Libi killed - US officials. BBC News Asia Al-Qaeda commander Abu Yahya al-Libi killed - US officials - BBC News