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al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, al-qāʿidah, "the base"), is an armed Islamic group that was started between August 1988 and late 1989.p75 It works as a network, as a stateless army, and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad. Most of the world thinks it is a Takfiri and terrorist organization.
Members of al-Qaeda have performed many acts of terrorism. Most of these have been done against the United States and other liberal countries. Some of its most well-known attacks have been the September 11 attacks, the bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998, and the attack on the U.S. Navy ship USS Cole in 2000. al-Qaeda has done suicide attacks and simultaneous (at the same time) bombings of different targets.
Among al-Qaeda's goals is for other countries to stop influencing Muslim countries and for a new Islamic caliphate to be made. There have been reports that al-Qaeda believes that a Christian–Jewish alliance is conspiring to destroy Islam (largely embodied in Israel–United States relations) and that the killing of bystanders and civilians is religiously justified in jihad.
There have been guesses that there are 500-1,000 operatives in Afghanistan and around 5,000 worldwide. However, there is no confirmation of this.
History[change | change source]
- "...the members of Islamic Jihad and its guiding figure Ayman al-Zawahiri have provided the backbone of [al-Quaeda's] leadership. According to officials in the C.I.A. and the F.B.I., Zawahiri has been responsible for much of the planning of the terrorist operations against the United States".
Death of Osama bin Laden and current leadership[change | change source]
Death of Abu Yahya al-Libi[change | change source]
Senior al-Qaeda leader Abu Yahya al-Libi was killed in a drone strike on June 4, 2012. He ranked second to Ayman al-Zawahiri at the time. The strike was carried out in the northwest tribal area of Waziristan. The Pakistan Government has protested to the U.S. about the strike.
References[change | change source]
- pronounced /ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KYE-də or /ælˈkeɪdə/ al-KAY-də; alternatively spelled al-Qaida and sometimes al-Qa'ida
- Bergen, Peter 2006. The Osama bin Laden I Know: an oral history of al-Qaeda's leader. 2nd ed, New York: Free Press. ISBN 0743278925
- United States District Court, Southern District of New York (February 6, 2001). "Testimony of Jamal Ahmad Al-Fadl". United States v. Usama bin Laden. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Retrieved 2008-09-03.[dead link]
- Gunaratna 2002, pp. 95–96. "al-Qaeda's global network, as we know it today, was created while it was based in Khartoum, from December 1991 till May 1996. To coordinate its overt and covert operations as al-Qaeda's ambitions and resources increased, it developed a decentralised, regional structure. [...] As a global multinational, al-Qaeda makes its constituent nationalities and ethnic groups, of which there are several dozen, responsible for a particular geographic region. Though its modus operandi is cellular, familial relationships play a key role."
- Naím, Moisés (January/February 2003). "The five wars of globalization". Foreign Policy (134): 28–37.
- 1st paragraph, p. x, The dynamics of political crime, Jeffrey Ian Ross, SAGE, 2003, ISBN 0803970455.
- 2010 Amil Khan, The Long Struggle, p 88
- Wright, Lawrence (2006). The looming tower: al-Qaeda and the road to 9/11. New York: Knopf. ISBN 037541486X
- Fu'ad Husayn `al-Zarqawi ... "The Second Generation of al-Qa’ida, Part Fourteen," al-Quds al-Arabi, July 13, 2005
- Lawrence Wright 2002. The New Yorker. The man behind Bin Laden
- Al-Qaeda commander Abu Yahya al-Libi killed - US officials. BBC News Asia 
Other websites[change | change source]
- Council on Foreign Relations al-Qaeda