Ancient sites in Kangleipak

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A pair of Kanglasha dragon structures in the inner zone of the Kangla, Imphal

Kangleipak (present day Manipur) has one of the oldest, richest and deepest histories in the world. Culturally, Manipur has a very long and rich heritage. This list does not include the historical sites of Medieval Kangleipak (Medieval Manipur). Here is a list of the ancient sites found in the present day Indian state of Manipur:

List[change | change source]

Bihu Loukon[change | change source]

The Bihu Loukon (Meitei: ꯕꯤꯍꯨ ꯂꯧꯀꯣꯟ) or the Chenglei Leipak (Old Manipuri: ꯆꯦꯡꯂꯩ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ) is an ancient star shaped mud fortress built in a prehistoric era. Archeological survey proved that it is much older than those structures in the Kangla. With the collective teamwork of the historians and the archeologists, the site is opined to be the place of dominion of the Chenglei dynasty (Chenglei Leipāk).[1][2][3]

Imphal Polo Ground[change | change source]

The Imphal Polo Ground, originally known as the Mapal Kangjeibung (Old Manipuri: ꯃꯄꯥꯜ ꯀꯥꯡꯆꯩꯄꯨꯡ), is the oldest Polo Ground in the world. It has its earliest recorded history of existence right from 15th century BC (3500 years old). It is located in the hearts of Imphal, the present day metropolis of Manipur.[4][5][6]

Kangla[change | change source]

The grand statues of the dragon lions, standing inside the Kangla.

Kangla (Old Manipuri: ꯀꯪꯂꯥ) literally means the "dry land" or the "antique land" in the Ancient Meitei language. It is the centre of administration of the rulers of many dynasties, among which the Ningthouja dynasty appeared to be the most powerful in the History of Manipur. It has its earliest recorded history of existence from the 15th century BC.[7]

Keke Moilang[change | change source]

The Keke Moilang (Old Manipuri: ꯀꯦꯀꯦ ꯃꯣꯏꯂꯥꯡ) or the Kege Moirang (Meitei: ꯀꯦꯒꯦ ꯃꯣꯏꯔꯥꯡ) was a civilization and a southern province in Ancient Manipur. It was the kingdom dominated by the Moirang dynasty (starts from 52 BC) for more than 2000 consecutive years. It flourished in the shores of the Loktak lake.[8][9][10][11][12]

Khuman Leipaak[change | change source]

The Khuman Leipaak (Old Manipuri: ꯈꯨꯃꯟ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ) was a historical place predominantly occupied by the Khuman dynasty as the region of their administration in Ancient Manipur. Its capital city was the Mayang Imphal, an ancient city in the left banks of the Imphal River.[13][14]

Konthoujam Lairembi sacred site[change | change source]

The Konthoujam Lairembi gi Khubam (Old Manipuri: ꯀꯣꯟꯊꯧꯆꯝ ꯂꯥꯢꯂꯦꯝꯄꯤ ꯀꯤ ꯈꯨꯐꯝ) is a 3000 years old sacred site dedicated to goddess Konthoujam Lairembi of the ancient Meitei religion. It is characterized by the presence of the thick banyan groves, a temple structure, an ancient stone inscription and a pair of concrete Hiyang Hiren structures.[15]

Manung Kangjeibung[change | change source]

The Manung Kangjeibung (Meitei: ꯃꯅꯨꯡ ꯀꯥꯡꯖꯩꯕꯨꯡ) is an ancient pologround located inside the Kangla. It is one of the three significant ancient playgrounds for the Sagol Kangjei, a primitive form of the modern polo in Ancient Manipur.[16][17]

Willong Khullen[change | change source]

Stonehenge of Manipur

The Willong Khullen (Meitei: ꯋꯤꯜꯂꯣꯡ ꯈꯨꯜꯂꯦꯟ), popularly known as the "Stonehenge of Manipur", is an early prehistoric megalithic site, found in the northern Manipur. Currently, less information is obtained for there is little archeological survey conducted at the site.[18][19]

Temple of Pakhangpa[change | change source]

The Temple of Pakhangpa (Old Manipuri: ꯄꯥꯈꯪꯄ ꯀꯪꯂꯥ ꯊꯦꯜꯂꯣꯟ) is an ancient temple built in the heart of the Kangla. The holy building is dedicated to Pakhangpa, a deity in the Meitei paganism. Recently, in 2010, the temple was re-built and consecrated in a completely modified architectural form due to severe damages in the former structure.[20]

Temple of Sanamahi[change | change source]

The Sanamahi Temple (Old Manipuri: ꯁꯅꯥꯃꯍꯤ ꯁꯪꯂꯦꯟ) is one of the oldest known sacred buildings in Manipur. It houses the staue of Lainingthou Sanamahi, the presiding household deity in Meitei paganism.

Temple of Thangching[change | change source]

The Temple of Thangching (Old Manipuri: ꯊꯥꯡꯆꯤꯡ ꯂꯥꯏꯁꯪ) is an ancient temple dedicated to Thangching, the presiding deity of Ancient Moirang and the progenitor of the Moirang dynasty, located in the hearts of present-day Moirang. It is mentioned in various epic sagas including the Khamba Thoibi.

References[change | change source]

  1. Bihu Loukon @
  2. Ancient star shaped mud fort discovered at Maklang, Manipur | KanglaOnline
  3. "One-day seminar held". Archived from the original on 2015-09-23.
  4. Exploring The World's Oldest Polo Ground - Sportz Talk
  5. Manipur: The place where polo was born? - Hindustan Times
  6. Exploring the World's Oldest Polo Ground - WorldAtlas
  7. Kangla The ancient Capital of Manipur
  8. History of Moirang Moirang and Ebuthou Thangjing Part 5
  9. Singh, Wahengbam Ibohal (1986). The History of Manipur: An early period. Manipur Commercial Company.
  10. Sarkar, S.K. (2003). Ethnic Composition and Crisis in South Asia. Global Vision Publishing House. p. 906. ISBN 978-81-87746-71-3.
  11. Sattar, Abdus (1971). In the Sylvan Shadows. Saquib Bros.
  12. Sanajaoba, Naorem (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  13. Singh, N. Tombi (1976). Khamba and Thoibi: The Unscaled Height of Love. Chitrebirentombichand Khorjeirup.
  14. Brara, N. Vijaylakshmi (1998). Politics, Society, and Cosmology in India's North East. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-564331-2.
  15. Three millennia mythology still resonates at Konthoujam Lairembi By Phanjoubam Chingkheinganba
  16. Singh, N. Tombi (1975). Manipur and the Mainstream. Chitrebirentombichand Khorjeirup.
  17. Muthukumaraswamy, M.D.; Kaushal, Molly (2004). Folklore, Public Sphere, and Civil Society. NFSC p. 72. ISBN 978-81-901481-4-6.
  18. "Stonehenge of Manipur | Mystery of India". Archived from the original on 2021-04-10. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
  19. Megalith structures of Willong remain withered : 04th dec12 ~ E-Pao! Headlines
  20. Pakhangba temple consecrated amidst religious rituals : 20th feb10 ~ E-Pao! Headlines