Androphilia and gynephilia

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Androphilia and gynephilia are terms in behavioral science (the study of human and animal behavior) that describe sexual orientation. It is an alternative to the gender binary in homosexual and heterosexual. Androphilia is attraction to a man or masculinity (any quality or behavior linked to a man). Gynephilia is attraction to a woman or femininity.[1] Ambiphilia (bisexuality) is the combination of androphilia and gynephilia.[2]

The terms describe the focus of attraction with no need to credit a sex assignment or gender identity to the person. It will skirt any difficulty to understand people between the West and the East. The terms will also describe intersex and transgender people.

History[change | change source]

Androphilia[change | change source]

Magnus Hirschfeld was an early 1900s German sexologist (expert in sex and sexuality). Hirschfeld put a homosexual man in one of four groups. A man with attraction to a boy (pedophile). A man with attraction to an adolescent boy (ephebophile). A man with attraction to another young man (androphile). A man with attraction to an old man (gerontophile).[3][4]

Androphilia, A Manifesto: Rejecting the Gay Identity, Reclaiming Masculinity is a book by Jack Donovan. Donovan uses androphilia to focus on masculinity in male homosexual desire. He also uses the term to reject the femininity and androgyny (combination of masculinity and femininity) in some parts of homosexual life.[5][6]

Androsexuality is the same as androphilia.[7]

Alternative use in biology and medicine

Androphilic the same as anthropophilic in biology. Anthropophilic is a parasite who will desire a human more than an animal.[8] Androphilic will also describe certain proteins and androgen receptors.[9]

Gynephilia[change | change source]

In Ancient Greek, there is a different form of the term. In Idyll 8, line 60, Theocritus uses gynaikophilias to describe the very strong desire Zeus has for any woman.[10][11][12]

Sigmund Freud says gynecophilic to describe his case study (detailed study of one person) Dora.[13] Freud also uses the term in writing.[14][15]

Gynesexuality is the same as gynephilia. Psychoanalyst Nancy Chodorow says the short preoedipal (attraction to the mother and jealousy of the father) time of focus on the mother should be named gynesexuality or matrisexuality.[16]

Attraction[change | change source]

Androphilia and gynephilia separate group attraction based on how old a person is. John Money names this chronophilia. Attraction to an adult is teleiophilia[17] or adultophilia.[18] Here, androphilia and gynephilia mean "attraction to an adult male" and "attraction to an adult female."[19]

Androphilia and gynephilia scales[change | change source]

Kurt Freund and Betty Steiner create the 9-item Gynephilia Scale and the 13-item Androphilia Scale in 1982. This measures attraction in a mature female or a mature male.[20] In 1985, Ray Blanchard names a new one the Modified Androphilia-Gynephilia Index (MAGI).[21]

Gender identity and behavior[change | change source]

Magnus Hirschfeld sorts between gynephilic, bisexual, androphilic, asexual, and automonosexual (sexual attraction to themselves only) transgender woman.[22]

Since the middle of the 1900s, some psychologists like to use homosexual transsexual (to mean the same as straight transgender woman) and heterosexual transsexual (to mean the same as transgender lesbian). Biologist Bruce Bagemihl is against this. It is because Bageminl thought it makes it simple to say a transsexual is a homosexual male looking to run from stigma.[23] The term "homosexual transsexual" is "heterosexist" because it describes people by sex assignment and not gender identity.[24] Sexologist John Bancroft says he regrets using this language. It was normal at the time Bancroft used it to talk about transgender women. Since 2008, he attempts to use terms that do not hurt the feelings of anyone.[25] Sexologist Charles Allen Moser is also against any terms like that.[26]

Sexologist Militon Diamond supports the terms androphilic, gynecophilic, and ambiphilic to describe any partner a person desires (andro = male, gyneco = female, ambi = both, philic = to love).

Gender in the East[change | change source]

Some scientists support use of the terms to skirt bias in concepts of human sexuality in the West. Johanna Schmidt says that in a society where a third gender is supported, a term like "homosexual transsexual" does not line up.[27]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Schmidt, Johanna (2010). Migrating Genders : Westernisation, Migration, and Samoan Fa'afafine. Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4094-0274-9. OCLC 649908924.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  2. Diamond, M (2010). The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology. Weiner, Irving B., Craighead, W. Edward. (4th ed ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. p. 1578. ISBN 978-0-470-17024-3. OCLC 429227903. |edition= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  3. Hirschfeld, Magnus (1944). "Sexual Anomalies". Psychosomatic Medicine. 7 (4): 253–254. doi:10.1097/00006842-194507000-00013. ISSN 0033-3174.
  4. Dynes, Wayne R. (1990). Encyclopedia of homosexuality. Johansson, Warren., Percy, William A., Donaldson, Stephen. New York: Garland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8240-6544-1. OCLC 20489216.
  5. Malebranche, Jack (2007). Androphilia : a manifesto : rejecting the gay identity, reclaiming masculinity. Baltimore, MD: Scapegoat Pub. ISBN 0-9764035-8-7. OCLC 138601766.
  6. Dynes, Wanye R. (1990). Encyclopedia of homosexuality. Johansson, Warren., Percy, William A., Donaldson, Stephen, 1946-1996. New York: Garland Publishing Company. p. 58. ISBN 0-8240-6544-1. OCLC 20489216.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  7. Tucker, Naomi (1995). Bisexual politics: theories, queries, and visions. New York: Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56024-950-1. OCLC 31901277.
  8. Covell, G. (1953). "Malaria Terminology: Report of a Drafting Committee Appointed by The World Health Organization". Archives of Internal Medicine. 93 (3): 475. doi:10.1001/archinte.1954.00240270161013. ISSN 0003-9926.
  9. Calandra, R.S.; Podestá, E.J.; Rivarola, M.A.; Blaquier, J.A. (1974). "Tissue androgens and androphilic proteins in rat epididymis during sexual development". Steroids. 24 (4): 507–518. doi:10.1016/0039-128X(74)90132-9.
  10. Cholmeley, R.J. (1901). "Cholmeley's Theocritus - The Idylls of Theocritus". The Classical Review. 16 (9): 463–466. doi:10.1017/s0009840x00206987. ISSN 0009-840X.
  11. Rummel, Erika (1996). Erasmus on Women. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-4426-7456-1. OCLC 654731376.
  12. Brown, George W. (1979). "Depression: A sociologist's view". Trends in Neurosciences. 2: 253–256. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(79)90099-7.
  13. Kahane, C. (2004). Freud and the Passions. O'Neill, John. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01529-2. OCLC 32664721.
  14. Freud, Sigmund (1908). "I have often seen it so: a woman unsatisfied by a man naturally turns to a woman and tries to invest her long-suppressed gynecophilic component with libido". doi:10.1086/357217. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. Freud, Sigmund (1900). "A good-natured and fine person, at a deeper layer gynecophilic, attached to the mother.".
  16. Chodorow, Nancy (1999). The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22155-9. OCLC 42213707.
  17. Blanchard, Ray; Barbaree, Howard E.; Bogaert, Anthony F.; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip; Kuban, Michael E.; Zucker, Kenneth J. (2000). "Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation in paedophiles". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 29 (5): 463–478. doi:10.1023/a:1001943719964. ISSN 0004-0002.
  18. Feierman, Jay R. (1992). "Reply to Dickemann: The ethology of variant sexology". Human Nature. 3 (3): 279–297. doi:10.1007/bf02692242. ISSN 1045-6767.
  19. Elliott, Michele (1996). <142::aid-car232>3.0.co;2-w "Book Review: Paedophiles and sexual offences against children". Child Abuse Review. 5 (2): 142–144. doi:10.1002/(sici)1099-0852(199605)5:2<142::aid-car232>3.0.co;2-w. ISSN 0952-9136.
  20. Freund, K.; Steiner, B. W.; Chan, S. (1982). "Two types of cross-gender identity". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 11 (1): 49–63. doi:10.1007/BF01541365. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 7073469.
  21. Blanchard, R. (1985). "Typology of male-to-female transsexualism". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 14 (3): 247–261. doi:10.1007/BF01542107. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 4004548.
  22. Veale, Jaimie F.; Clarke, Dave E.; Lomax, Terri C. (2008-02-26). "Sexuality of Male-to-Female Transsexuals". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 37 (4): 586–597. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9306-9. ISSN 0004-0002.
  23. Queerly phrased : language, gender, and sexuality. Livia, Anna., Hall, Kira, 1962-. New York: Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 1-60256-120-6. OCLC 252561680.CS1 maint: others (link)
  24. Principles and practice of sex therapy. Leiblum, Sandra Risa., Rosen, Raymond, 1946- (3rd ed ed.). New York: Guilford Press. 2000. ISBN 1-57230-574-6. OCLC 43845675. |edition= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: others (link)
  25. Bancroft, John (2008). "Lust or Identity?". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 37 (3): 426–428. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9317-1. ISSN 0004-0002.
  26. Moser, Charles (2010). "Blanchard's Autogynephilia Theory: a critique". Journal of Homosexuality. 57 (6): 790–809. doi:10.1080/00918369.2010.486241. ISSN 1540-3602. PMID 20582803.
  27. CRIBB, JO (1999). "Being Bashed: Western Samoan women's responses to domestic violence in Western Samoa and New Zealand". Gender, Place & Culture. 6 (1): 49–65. doi:10.1080/09663699925141. ISSN 0966-369X.