Anglophone Crisis

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Anglophone Crisis
Part of the Anglophone problem
Anglophone Crisis Montage.png
(clockwise from top left)
Cameroonian troops enter an English-speaking town; Cameroonian military on a bridge, on their way to Wum, in the English-speaking area; burned-out vehicles following clashes in Buea; Cameroonian troops under fire from Ambazonian fighters; Cameroonian gendarmes arrive in the city of Buea; Cameroonian military from the Rapid Intervention Battalion deployed to protect schools and people in Bamenda.
Date9 September 2017 – present
(4 years, 9 months and 1 week)
Location
Status Ongoing
Belligerents
 Cameroon Ambazonia
Commanders and leaders
Paul Biya
Philémon Yang
Joseph Ngute
René Claude Meka
Valere Nka
Sisiku Julius Ayuk Tabe
Samuel Ikome Sako
Ayaba Cho Lucas
Ebenezer Akwanga
Units involved
Cameroon Armed Forces
Vigilante groups
Ambazonia Defence Forces
Southern Cameroons Defence Forces
Fako Mountain Lions

The Anglophone Crisis (French: Crise anglophone), also known as the Ambazonia War,[1] or the Cameroonian Civil War,[2] is an ongoing armed conflict in the Southern Cameroons regions of Cameroon. It is a part of the long-standing Anglophone problem.[3] After the end of the 2016–17 Cameroonian protests, Ambazonian separatists in the English-speaking parts of Northwest Region and Southwest Region (known as Southern Cameroons) started a guerilla campaign against Cameroonian security forces. The later said that independence has occurred. In November 2017, the government of Cameroon declared war on the separatists. It sent its army into the regions.[4]

Beginning[change | change source]

The conflict started as a small insurgency. It spread to most parts of the area within a year.[5] By the summer of 2019, the government controlled the major cities and parts of the countryside. The Ambazonian nationalists controlled parts of the countryside. They were also seen often in the major cities.[6] A year later, clearly-defined frontlines had formed. Cameroon would raid separatist-controlled towns and villages, but it would not try to recapture them.[7] Its main concern was securing the major urban areas.[6] The Cameroonian government is supported by Nigeria.[8] Some Ambazonian groups are supported by Biafran separatists.

Damages[change | change source]

Thousands of people have been killed in the war. More than half a million people have had to leave their homes.[6] In 2019, talk took place bewteen Cameroon and the separatists for the first time.[9] special status was given to the Anglophone regions.[10] Despite this the war continued to intensify in late 2019.[11] The 2020 Cameroonian parliamentary election cause more problems. The separatists became more assertive while Cameroon sent more forces. The COVID-19 pandemic saw one group declare a ceasefire to fight the spread of the virus. other groups and the Cameroonian government ignored this and kept fighting.[12]

Negotiations[change | change source]

There has been very few tries at negotiating. Switzerland tried in 2019 but they failed. Separatist leaders who were returned to Cameroon from Nigeria in 2018 were sent to prison for life. There was growing international pressure for an end to the conflict. In July 2020 Cameroon began talking with these imprisoned leaders.[13] The talks were held between Sisiku Julius Ayuk Tabe and other imprisoned leaders and representatives of the Cameroonian government.

The situation is still taking place.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. ‘Ambazonia War’ drowns SDF 28th Anniversary Archived 25 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Journal du Cameroun, 28 May 2018. Accessed 25 October 2018.
  2. Cameroon on Brink of Civil War as English Speakers Recount ‘Unbearable’ Horrors, The New York Times, 6 October 2018. Accessed 27 April 2019.
  3. "Cameroon's Anglophone crisis is threatening to spin out of control". Quartz Africa. 14 January 2018. Archived from the original on 31 May 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  4. "Deadly clashes between troops, ADF forces leave Nguti on the brink". Journal du Cameroun. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018..
  5. 5.0 5.1 Picking a Fight: The Rise of Armed Separatists in Cameroon, ACLED. Accessed 17 November 2018.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Cameroon’s Anglophone Crisis: How to Get to Talks?, Crisis Group, 2 May 2019. Accessed 2 May 2019.
  7. 7.0 7.1 I Traveled Deep Into Conflict to Bury My Grandfather. I Returned Slightly Charmed, Fodors Travel, 23 September 2020. Accessed 24 September 2020.
  8. Kindzeka, Moki (August 27, 2021). "Cameroon, Nigeria Announce Effort to Jointly Fight Separatists". Voice of America. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
  9. Cameroon: Ambazonia leaders endorse Swiss-led dialogue to solve Anglophone crisis, Journal du Cameroun, 28 June 2019. Accessed 28 June 2019.
  10. Cameroon grants special status to Anglophone regions, Reuters, 20 December 2019. Accessed 22 December 2019.
  11. Cameroon's Separatists Intensify Attacks to Protest Dialogue, Voice of America, 24 September 2019. Accessed 26 September 2019.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Cameroon's Separatists Relaunch Attacks to Reject State Reconstruction Plan, Voice of America, 9 April 2020. Accessed 9 April 2020.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Cameroon: Government is secretly negotiating with the Ambazonians, The Africa Report, 6 July 2020. Accessed 7 July 2020.