Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery
Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, also known as Archibald Primrose (1847–1851), Lord Dalmeny (1851–1868).
After an education at Eton and Oxford, Dalmeny succeeded to his grandfather's Scottish earldom in 1868. Becoming involved in politics, he became a Liberal, and was involved in Gladstone's Midlothian campaign, which brought the Liberals back into power in 1880. In the Liberal administration that followed, Rosebery served in junior offices, including that of Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, before entering the Cabinet as Lord Privy Seal in March 1885.
Rosebery became a leader of the Liberal Imperialist faction of the Liberal Party, and in Gladstone's third (1886) and fourth (1892–1894) administrations, Rosebery served as Foreign Secretary. When Gladstone retired in 1894, Rosebery became his successor as Prime Minister, much to the disgust of Sir William Harcourt, the Chancellor of the Exchequer and leader of the more left-wing Liberals. Rosebery's government was largely unsuccessful—his designs in foreign policy, such as expansion of the fleet, were defeated by disagreements within the Liberal Party, while the Tory-dominated House of Lords stopped the whole of the Liberals' domestic legislation. In 1895, Rosebery resigned, and a Conservative government under Lord Salisbury took his place.
Rosebery resigned as leader of the Liberal Party in 1896, to be succeeded by Harcourt, and gradually moved further and further from the mainstream of the party, supporting the Boer War and opposing Irish Home Rule, a position which prevented him from taking part in the Liberal government that returned to power in 1905. In his later years, Rosebery turned to writing, including biographies of Lord Chatham, Pitt the Younger, Napoleon, and Lord Randolph Churchill. He was also famous for his champion racehorses.
Rosebery's Government, 1894–95[change | change source]
- Rosebery – First Lord of the Treasury / Lord President of the Council
- Lord Herschell – Lord Chancellor
- Lord Tweedmouth – Lord Privy Seal
- H. H. Asquith – Secretary of State for the Home Department
- Lord Kimberley – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
- Lord Ripon – Secretary of State for the Colonies
- Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman – Secretary of State for War
- Sir Henry Fowler – Secretary of State for India
- Sir William Harcourt – Chancellor of the Exchequer
- Lord Spencer – First Lord of the Admiralty
- A. J. Mundella – President of the Board of Trade
- Arnold Morley – Postmaster-General
- George Shaw Lefevre – President of the Local Government Board
- James Bryce – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
- John Morley – Chief Secretary for Ireland
- Sir George Trevelyan – Secretary for Scotland
- Sir Arthur Dyke Acland – Vice President of the Council
- May 1894 – Bryce succeeds Mundella at the Board of Trade. Tweedmouth succeeds Bryce at the Duchy of Lancaster, remaining also Lord Privy Seal.
References[change | change source]
- As a Scottish peer he did not also have a seat in the House of Lords, so he was made Baron Rosebery in 1868, and the Earl of Midlothian in 1911.
- In 1884 Lord Rosebery visited Australia. There in Adelaide he noticed that the country was developing more independently. From there he got the idea of free nations bringing up an association called the "Commonwealth of Nations".
- "History – Though the modern Commonwealth is just 60 years old, the idea took root in the 19th century". Commonwealth Secretariat. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011.