Austria

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Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333

Republic of Austria

Republik Österreich  (German)
Anthem: 
Location of  Austria  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Austria  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Vienna
48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350
Official language
and national language
German[a][b]
Recognised languages
Ethnic groups
(2012)
Religion
(2018[4])
Demonym(s)Austrian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Alexander Van der Bellen
Sebastian Kurz
Werner Kogler
LegislatureParliament
Federal Council
National Council
Establishment history
976
1156
1453
1804
1867
1918
1934
• Anschluss
1938
since 1945
• State Treaty in effect
27 July 1955
14 December 1955
1 January 1995
Area
• Total
83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) (113th)
• Water (%)
0.84 (as of 2015)[5]
Population
• October 2020 estimate
Template:IncreaseNeutral 8,935,112[6] (97th)
• Density
106/km2 (274.5/sq mi) (106th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$461.432 billion[7]
• Per capita
$51,936[7] (17th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$446,315 billion[7] (27th)
• Per capita
$50,277[7] (15th)
Gini (2019)Negative increase 27.5[8]
low · 14th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.922[9]
very high · 18th
CurrencyEuro ()[c] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+43
ISO 3166 codeAT
Internet TLD.at[d]
  1. ^ There is an official dictionary, the Österreichisches Wörterbuch, published on commission by the Austrian Ministry of Education.
  2. ^ Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Romani, Slovak, and Slovene are officially recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML).
  3. ^ Austrian schilling before 1999; Virtual Euro since 1 January 1999; Euro since 1 January 2002.
  4. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Austria (/ˈɒstriə/ (About this soundlisten), /ˈɔːs-/;[10] German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯ç] (About this soundlisten); Bavarian: Östareich, Estareich [ø:staʁaɪ̯ç, e:staʁaɪ̯ç]), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich, About this soundlisten ; Bavarian: Republik Östareich), is a country in Central Europe. Around Austria there are the countries of Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. Currently, the chancellor is Sebastian Kurz. The previous chancellor was Brigitte Bierlein (2019). Austria has been a member-state of the United Nations since 1955 the European Union since 1995 and OPEC since 2019.

The people in Austria speak German, a few also speak Hungarian, Slovenian and Croatian. The capital of Austria is Vienna (Wien).

Austria is more than a thousand years old. Its history can be followed to the ninth century. At that time the first people moved to the land now known as Austria. The name "Ostarrichi" is first written in an official document from 996. Since then this word has developed into the Modern German word Österreich, which literally means "East Empire."

Politics[change | change source]

Austria is a democratic republic. It is a neutral state, that means it does not take part in wars with other countries. It has been in the United Nations since 1955 and in the European Union since 1995.

Austria is also a federal state and divided into nine states (German: Bundesländer):

  1. Burgenland (Burgenland)
  2. Carinthia (Kärnten)
  3. Lower Austria (Niederösterreich)
  4. Salzburg(erland) (Salzburg)
  5. Styria (Steiermark)
  6. Tyrol (Tirol)
  7. Upper Austria (Oberösterreich)
  8. Vienna (Wien)
  9. Vorarlberg (Vorarlberg)

More information: States of Austria.

History[change | change source]

Ancient times[change | change source]

There has been human settlement in the area that is now Austria for a long time. The first settlers go back to the Paleolithic age. That was the time of the Neanderthals. They left works of art such as the Venus of Willendorf. In the Neolithic age people were living there to dig for mineral resources, especially copper. Ötzi, a mummy found in a glacier between Austria and Italy, is from that time. In the Bronze Age people built bigger settlements and fortresses, especially where there were mineral resources. Salt mining began near Hallstatt. At that time, Celts began to form the first states.

The Romans[change | change source]

Map

The Roman cities and their modern names[change | change source]

The Romans came 15 B.C. to Austria and made the Celtic Regnum Noricum to a province. Modern Austria was part of three provinces, Raetia, Noricum and Pannonia. The border in the north was the Danube.

Shown on the map[change | change source]
  • Vindobona-Vienna
  • Carnuntum- Petronell and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg
  • Savaria- Szombathely (Hungary)
  • Favianis- Mautern an der Donau
  • Lauriacum- Lorch near Enns
  • Boiotro- Passau (Germany)
  • Iuvavum- Salzburg
  • Sabiona- Säben bei Klausen (Italy)
  • Aguntum- close to Lienz
  • Teurnia- close to Spital an der Drau
  • Virunum - Zollfeld in Carinthia
  • Brigantium- Bregenz
Others[change | change source]
  • Lentia- Linz
  • Ovilava- Wels
  • Veldidena- Wilten (now part of Innsbruck)
  • Flavia Solva- near Leibniz

Modern times[change | change source]

Austria was the Austrian Empire from about 800 to 1867 and was ruled by The House of Habsburg for most of that period. Between 1867 and 1918 it was a part of Austria-Hungary. Then it became a republic. The First Republic was from 1918 to 1938. From 1938 to 1945 Austria was part of Nazi Germany. The Second Republic was started in 1945.

Geography[change | change source]

Map of Austria

Austria is a largely mountainous country since it is partially in the Alps. The high mountainous Alps in the west of Austria flatten somewhat into low lands and plains in the east of the country where the Danube flows.

Culture[change | change source]

Music and Arts[change | change source]

Many famous composers were Austrians or born in Austria. There are Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr., Johann Strauss, Jr. and Gustav Mahler. In modern times there were Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg, who belonged to the Second Viennese School.

Austria has many artists, there are Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele or Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Inge Morath or Otto Wagner and scienc.

Food[change | change source]

Famous Austrian dishes are Wiener Schnitzel, Apfelstrudel, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren, Knödel, Sachertorte and Tafelspitz. But you can also find a lot of local dishes like Kärntner Reindling (a kind of cake), Kärntner Nudeln (also called "Kärntner Kasnudeln", you may write it "...nudln" too), Tiroler Knödl (may be written "...knödel"; ), Tiroler Schlipfkrapfen (another kind of "Kärntner Nudeln"), Salzburger Nockerl (also may be written ..."Nockerln"), Steirisches Wurzelfleisch (..."Wurzlfleisch") or Sterz ("Steirischer Sterz").

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Austria[change | change source]

  1. Historic Centre of Salzburg — 1996
  2. Schönbrunn Palace — 1996
  3. HallstattDachstein Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape — 1997
  4. Semmering Railway — 1998
  5. Historic Centre of Graz and Schloss Eggenberg — 1999 (extended in 2010)
  6. Wachau Cultural Landscape — 2000
  7. Historic Centre of Vienna — 2001
  8. Lake Neusiedl — 2001

Gallery[change | change source]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Die verschiedenen Amtssprachen in Österreich". DemokratieWEBstatt.at. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  2. "Regional Languages of Austria". Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. 2013. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  3. "Kommission für Migrations und Integrationsforschung der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften" [Commission for Migration and Integration Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences] (PDF). Statistik Austria. 2012. p. 23. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  4. "Central Intelligence Agency". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  5. "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  6. "Population by Year-/Quarter-beginning". 7 November 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Austria". International Monetary Fund. 1 April 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  8. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  9. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  10. Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2

Other websites[change | change source]