Austria

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Republic of Austria
Republik Österreich
Anthem: Land der Berge, Land am Strome  (German)
Land of Mountains, Land by the River

Location of  Austria  (dark green)– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Austria  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Vienna
Official languages German
Spoken languages Austro-Bavarian, Alemannic in Vorarlberg. Locally also Slovene, Burgenland Croatian and Hungarian
Ethnic groups (2001) 91.1% Austrians,
8.9% foreigners -
4% former Yugoslavs,
1.6% Turks,
2.4% others and unspecified[1]
Demonym Austrian
Government Federal Parliamentary republic
Alexander Van der Bellen
Christian Kern (SPÖ)
Elisabeth Köstinger (ÖVP)
Independence
• Austrian State Treaty in force
27 July 1955 (Duchy: 1156, Austrian Empire: 1804, First Austrian Republic: 1918–1938, Second Republic since 1945)
Area
• Total
83,855 km2 (32,377 sq mi) (115th)
• Water (%)
1.7
Population
• 2011 estimate
8,414,638 [2] (92nd)
• 2001 census
8,032,926
• Density
99/km2 (256.4/sq mi) (99th)
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
• Total
$343 billion [3]
• Per capita
$40.979[3]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
• Total
$405 billion[3]
• Per capita
$48,350[3]
Gini (2007) 26[4]
low
HDI (2011) Increase 0.885[5]
very high · 19th
Currency Euro () ² (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+01)
• Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+02)
Drives on the right
Calling code 43
ISO 3166 code AT
Internet TLD .at ³
  1. Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian are officially recognised regional languages and Austrian Sign Language is a protected minority language throughout the country.
  2. Euro since 1 Jan 1999 virtual, since 1 Jan 2002 real currency; before: Austrian Schilling.
  3. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Austria (German: Österreich; officially called Republic of Austria), is a country in Central Europe. Around Austria there are Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. Currently, the chancellor is Christian Kern. The previous chancellor was Werner Faymann (2008 - 2016). Austria has been a member-state of the EU since 1995.

The people in Austria speak German, a few also Hungarian, Slovenian and Croatian. The capital of Austria is Vienna (Wien).

Austria is more than a thousand years old. Its history can be followed to the ninth century. At that time the first people moved to the land now known as Austria. The name "Ostarrichi" is first written in an official document from 996. Since then this word has developed into the Modern German word Österreich, which literally means "East Kingdom."

Politics[change | change source]

Austria is a democratic republic. It is a neutral state, that means it does not take part in wars with other countries. It has been in the United Nations since 1955 and in the European Union since 1995.

Austria is also a federal state and divided into nine states (German: Bundesländer):

  1. Burgenland (Burgenland)
  2. Carinthia (Kärnten)
  3. Lower Austria (Niederösterreich)
  4. Salzburg(erland) (Salzburg)
  5. Styria (Steiermark)
  6. Tyrol (Tirol)
  7. Upper Austria (Oberösterreich)
  8. Vienna (Wien)
  9. Vorarlberg (Vorarlberg)

More information: States of Austria.

History[change | change source]

Ancient times[change | change source]

There has been human settlement in the area that is now Austria for a long time. The first settlers go back to the Paleolithic age. That was the time of the Neanderthals. They left works of art such as the Venus of Willendorf. In the Neolithic age people were living there to dig for mineral resources, especially copper. Ötzi, a mummy found in a glacier between Austria and Italy, is from that time. In the Bronze Age people built bigger settlements and fortresses, especially where there were mineral resources. Salt mining began near Hallstatt. At that time, Celts began to form the first states.

The Romans[change | change source]

Map

The Roman cities and their modern names[change | change source]

The Romans came 15 B.C. to Austria and made the Celtic Regnum Noricum to a province. Modern Austria was part of three provinces, Raetia, Noricum and Pannonia. The border in the north was the Danube.

Shown on the map[change | change source]
  • Vindobona-Vienna
  • Carnuntum- Petronell and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg
  • Savaria- Szombathely (Hungary)
  • Favianis- Mautern an der Donau
  • Lauriacum- Lorch near Enns
  • Boiotro- Passau (Germany)
  • Iuvavum- Salzburg
  • Sabiona- Säben bei Klausen (Italy)
  • Aguntum- close to Lienz
  • Teurnia- close to Spital an der Drau
  • Virunum - Zollfeld in Carinthia
  • Brigantium- Bregenz
Others[change | change source]
  • Lentia- Linz
  • Ovilava- Wels
  • Veldidena- Wilten (now part of Innsbruck)
  • Flavia Solva- near Leibniz

Modern times[change | change source]

Austria was the Austrian Empire from about 800 to 1918 and was ruled by The House of Habsburg for most of that period. Between 1867 and 1918 it was a part of Austria-Hungary. Then it became a republic. The First Republic was from 1918 to 1938. From 1938 to 1945 Austria was part of Nazi Germany. The Second Republic was started in 1945.

Geography[change | change source]

Map of Austria

Austria is a largely mountainous country since it is partially in the Alps. The high mountainous Alps in the west of Austria flatten somewhat into low lands and plains in the east of the country where the Danube flows.

Culture[change | change source]

Music and Arts[change | change source]

Many famous composers were Austrians or born in Austria. There are Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr., Johann Strauss, Jr. and Gustav Mahler. In modern times there were Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg, who belonged to the Second Viennese School.

Austria has many artists, there are Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele or Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Inge Morath or Otto Wagner and scienc.

Food[change | change source]

Famous Austrian dishes are Wiener Schnitzel, Apfelstrudel, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren, Knödel, Sachertorte and Tafelspitz. But you can also find a lot of local dishes like Kärntner Reindling (a kind of cake), Kärntner Nudeln (also called "Kärntner Kasnudeln", you may write it "...nudln" too), Tiroler Knödl (may be written "...knödel"; ), Tiroler Schlipfkrapfen (another kind of "Kärntner Nudeln"), Salzburger Nockerl (also may be written ..."Nockerln"), Steirisches Wurzelfleisch (..."Wurzlfleisch") or Sterz ("Steirischer Sterz").

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Austria[change | change source]

  1. Historic Centre of Salzburg — 1996
  2. Schönbrunn Palace — 1996
  3. HallstattDachstein Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape — 1997
  4. Semmering Railway — 1998
  5. Historic Centre of Graz and Schloss Eggenberg — 1999 (extended in 2010)
  6. Wachau Cultural Landscape — 2000
  7. Historic Centre of Vienna — 2001
  8. Lake Neusiedl — 2001

Gallery[change | change source]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. World Factbook (3 August 2010). "Austria". CIA. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  2. "Bevölkerungsstand und −veränderung". Statistik Austria. 2011-05-19. Retrieved 2011-07-24. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Austria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  4. "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  5. "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 

Other websites[change | change source]

  • Media related to Austria at Wikimedia Commons
  • Austria travel guide from Wikivoyage