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Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Pseudomonadota
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Pseudomonadales
Family: Pseudomonadaceae
Genus: Azotobacter
Beijerinck 1901

Azotobacter agilis
Azotobacter armeniacus
Azotobacter beijerinckii
Azotobacter chroococcum
Azotobacter nigricans
Azotobacter salinestris
Azotobacter tropicalis
Azotobacter vinelandii

Azotobacter are a type of bacteria that are normally oval or spherical in shape. Azotobacter species are commonly found in soil, sediments and water. Azotobacter grows well at approximately at pH range of 7 to 9, between neutral and alkaline. Azotobacter will die if they are in an environment below the pH 6.[1]

Nitrogen fixation can be defined as the removal of nitrogen from the environment in its molecular form (N2) to create nitrogen compounds that are helpful for other biological processes. Azotobacter species are nitrogen-fixing bacteria (which convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia.[2] Azotobacter species are classified as one of the non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation bacteria (free-living bacteria in the soil).

Azotobacter aids to boost plant development and increase soil nitrogen level through nitrogen fixation by using carbon for its metabolism. Optimal calcium nutrient concentrations are required for Azotobacter to develop more rapidly and have the capacity to fix nitrogen (Iswaran and Sen, 1960)[3] but higher nitrogen concentrations have a negative impact on Azotobacter activity (Soleimanzadeh and Gooshchi, 2013). Since more than a century ago, the genus Azotobacter has been utilised as a biofertilizer (fertiliser that contains living microorganisms) (Gerlach & Vogel, 1902).

References[change | change source]

  1. Dev Jnawali, Arjun; Babu Ojha, Roshan; Marahatta, Sushma (9 October 2015). "Role of Azotobacter in soil fertility and sustainability–a review". Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research. 2 (6). doi:10.15406/apar.2015.02.00069. ISSN 2373-6402. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  2. Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). "Chromium, Molybdenum and Tungsten". Chemistry of the Elements. Elsevier: 1002–1039. doi:10.1016/b978-0-7506-3365-9.50029-8. ISBN 9780750633659. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  3. Sumbul, Aisha; Ansari, Rizwan Ali; Rizvi, Rose; Mahmood, Irshad (1 December 2020). "Azotobacter: A potential bio-fertilizer for soil and plant health management". Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 27 (12): 3634–3640. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.004. ISSN 1319-562X. PMC 7714982. PMID 33304174.