Coordinates: 53°09′N 29°14′E / 53.150°N 29.233°E / 53.150; 29.233
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Бобруйск (Bobruysk)
Flag of Babrujsk
Coat of arms of Babrujsk
Babrujsk is located in Belarus
Coordinates: 53°09′N 29°14′E / 53.150°N 29.233°E / 53.150; 29.233
OblastMogilev Region
First mentioned1387
 • MayorAleksandr Studnev
 • Total83.86 km2 (32.38 sq mi)
157 m (515 ft)
 • Total209,675
 • Density2,500/km2 (6,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
Area code+375 0225(1)
Vehicle registration6

Babruysk, Babrujsk, Bobruisk, or Bobruysk (Belarusian: Бабруйск [bäˈbruɪ̯s̪k], Łacinka: Babrujsk, Russian: Бобруйск, tr. Bobrujsk, IPA: [bɐˈbruɪ̯s̪k], Yiddish: באָברויסק Bobroysk) is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus. It is on the Berezina River. As of 2022, its population was 209,675.[1] It is the seventh-largest city in Belarus by population and area.

The name Babruysk (as well as that of the Babruyka River) probably comes from the Belarusian word babyor (бабёр; 'beaver'). Many beavers used to live around the Berezina. However, they were almost gone by the end of the 19th century because of hunting and pollution.

Babruysk has an area of 66 square kilometres (25 sq mi). It has over 450 streets.

Babruysk is at the intersection of railroads to Asipovichy, Zhlobin, Aktsyabrski and roads to Minsk, Homyel, Mahilyow, Kalinkavichy, Slutsk, and Rahachow. It has the biggest timber mill in Belarus. It is also known for its chemical, machine making and metal-working industries.

In 2021, there were 38 public schools in Babruysk, and over 24,000 students. There are three schools focusing on music, dance and visual arts. There is also a medical school.

History[change | change source]

Babruysk is one of the oldest cities in Belarus. It was first mentioned in writing in the middle of the 14th century. Archaeologists found that in the 5th and 6th centuries there were Slavic settlements up the river Berezina from where Babruysk is right now. Stone tools and weapons found suggest that people have lived there since the Stone Age.

During the reign of Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev, Babruysk was a small village. The people of the town were fishermen and beaver trappers. This is where the name Babruysk comes from. Babruysk was part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth for many centuries. It was an important border post and military base. In the 14th century, a castle was built on one of the hills near the Berezina River.

Babruysk was also a big trade center. There is evidence of a market with almost one hundred stalls. In the first half of the 17th century, Babruysk became a big trade outpost. This is because of its position at the intersection of major trade routes and the Berezina River. There were many types of artisans in the village, including carpenters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, and bakers. The population in the first half of the 17th century was between 2,000 and 5,000 people.

Babruysk fortress in 1811

The town was surrounded by fortifications made from wood and dirt. It stretched for over 3 km (2 mi). In the walls there were openings for firearms. After the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the village went into the hands of Imperial Russia. In 1810, the construction of a fortress to mark the border between Russia and Austria and Prussia began. In 1812, it was almost done and was successful in pushing back Napoleon's attack for four months. The building was rebuilt on a large scale after the war. It was finished in 1820. The Babruysk fortress worked well for many decades and today is a major tourist attraction.

The 1861 census said the town had a population of 15,766. The ethnic groups living in Babruysk then included Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, and Jews. Most of the buildings were made from wood. This was common for cities in Belarus at the time. In 1866, there were 1,498 houses. Only 29 of these were made from brick.

The Jewish population of Babruysk went up after the Napoleonic Wars. By 1897, 20,760 of the 34,336 people living in the city were Jews.[2] This was about 60% of the population. Most of them were employed in crafts, industry, and trade.

Lenin Square

In 1902, the Great Fire of Babruysk left 2,500 families homeless and destroyed over 250 businesses, 15 schools, and the market. There were more than 7 million rubles in property damage. However, the city was quickly rebuilt. This time, it was built with brick and stone.

In 1904, the 40th Infantry Division of the Imperial Russian Army had its headquarters here.[3]

During the Russian Civil War, the Red Army fought the Polish I Corps in Russia in Babruysk. This was known as the Battle of Bobruysk. It was fought between February 2 and March 11, 1918. The Polish troops, commanded by General Jozef Dowbor-Musnicki, eventually took the town.

The old library building of Babruysk.
The recently (2006–2009) rebuilt Orthodox St. Nicholas Cathedral in Babruysk.
Babruysk City Hall and Lenin.
Old T-34 tank lifted on a podium in Babruysk downtown.
Babruysk railway station.
Bobruisk Drama and comedy

On 28 June 1941, troops of the German Army Group Centre took Babruysk. Thinking that the German troops would not attack civilians, many Jews stayed behind. Because of this, 20,000 Babruysk Jews were shot and buried in mass graves. A ghetto and labor camps were set up in the southwest part of town. Soon the Nazis began executing the Jews in the ghetto in groups of about 30. By 1943, the labor camps were cleared of Jews. The Jews who escaped joined partisan forces in the nearby forest. They attacked enemy railroad lines. There is a small memorial dedicated to the memory of Babruysk Jews killed in the Holocaust. It is in the Nahalat Yitzhak cemetery, Giv'atayim, Israel, as part of the Babi Yar memorial.[4]

In July 1941, a battle started near Babruysk. This became part of the Battle of Smolensk.

On June 29, 1944, the Red Army took Babruysk back. The city was ruined. The population was 84,107 in 1939. After the war, it was 28,352. Thousands of workers and prisoners of war worked to clear the factories and streets of rubble. They filled in craters made by the bombardment. The machine building factory had been almost completely destroyed. It was fixed and started working again by the end of 1944.

In 1944, Babruysk Voblast was created. Babruysk became the administrative center of the voblast. The voblast was abolished in 1954.

The population grew a lot after the war. In 1959 it was 96,000, 116,000 in 1965, 122,500 in 1968, 136,000 in 1970, and 232,000 in 1989. This was mostly because of urbanization. Many people moved into the city from the nearby rural areas.

Belarus left the Soviet Union in 1991. Babruysk became part of the new country.

Climate[change | change source]

Babruysk has a humid continental climate (Dfb) in the Köppen climate classification system.[5]

Climate data for Babruysk (1991–2020, extremes 1901–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 9.9
Average high °C (°F) −2.0
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.4
Average low °C (°F) −7
Record low °C (°F) −37.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40
Average rainy days 7 6 9 12 14 15 15 12 14 13 13 10 140
Average snowy days 18 17 12 3 0.2 0 0 0 0 2 10 18 80
Average relative humidity (%) 86 83 78 69 68 73 74 75 80 83 88 88 79

Notable people[change | change source]

International relations[change | change source]

Babruysk is twinned with:[8]

References[change | change source]

  1. Численность населения на 1 января 2022 г. и среднегодовая численность населения за 2021 год по Республике Беларусь в разрезе областей, районов, городов, поселков городского типа (in Russian). Национальный статистический комитет Республики Беларусь. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  2. Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the politics of nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p.16
  3. Romanov, K.S. "40th Infantry Division". Regiment ru. Romanov K S. Archived from the original on 7 September 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  4. "Jewish Heritage Research Group in Belarus". Archived from the original on 2015-07-23. Retrieved 2023-02-10.
  5. "Babruysk, Belarus Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
  6. "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Babruysk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  7. Gary Vaynerchuk (December 19, 2014). "The Most Important Word Ever – Gary Vaynerchuk". Archived from the original on 2021-12-21 – via YouTube.
  8. "Внешнеэкономическое сотрудничество". (in Russian). Babruysk. Archived from the original on 2018-01-21. Retrieved 2020-01-14.

Other websites[change | change source]

53°09′N 29°14′E / 53.150°N 29.233°E / 53.150; 29.233