Battle of Garfagnana
|Battle of Garfagnana|
|Part of the Italian Campaign of World War II|
The Gothic Line, in red. Garfagnana was in the most western section, next to Lucca and Massa
| United States
| Nazi Germany
Italian Social Republic
|Commanders and leaders|
| Lucian Truscott
| Rodolfo Graziani
140 artillery pieces
100 artillery pieces
|Casualties and losses|
|nearly 1,000 killed/missing in action
300+ prisoners taken
|about 1,000 killed/missing in action|
The Battle of Garfagnana (Italian: Battaglia della Garfagnana) was known to the Germans as Operation Winter Storm (Unternehmen Wintergewitter) and nicknamed the "Christmas Offensive" (Italian: Offensiva di Natale).
The Allies had ordered two brigades from Indian 8th Infantry Division to be moved to help the U.S. 92nd Infantry Division. By the time they had arrived the Germans and Italians had captured Barga. U.S. soldiers had intended to retreat to Lucca.:79 The German / Italian force stopped the attack and withdrew.
Historical background[change | change source]
Benito Mussolini and his Defense Minister, Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, wanted to create an Italian Army. They did not want this army to be under German control. They wanted some of the newly created Italian Divisions to attack the Allies in the Italian peninsula.
They planned an attack in Garfagnana for two of their new Divisions. There would be 40,000 men and airplanes. Their goal was recapturing Lucca, Pisa and Livorno in Tuscany from the Allies. But the Italians lacked arms, tanks and airplanes.
The Germans created their own attack, With 9,000 soldiers (mostly Italians), they attacked in Garfagnana a small area of the Gothic Line. They wanted to move the Allies back 25 kilometres (16 mi).
The battle[change | change source]
Following the Ardennes Offensive in mid-December, the Allies thought the Axis might try an attack in Northern Italy. The 19th and 21st Brigades of the Indian 8th Infantry Division were moved to help the U.S. 92nd Infantry Division in front of Lucca.:25
On 26 December, several RSI military did the "Operation Winter Storm" (Wintergewitter) attacks with three German battalions. This was a German and Italian attack against the American 92nd Infantry Division. A total of 9,100 Axis troops (of which 66% were Italians), with 100 artillery pieces but no tanks attacked. There were 18,000 Allied troops with 140 artillery batteries and 120 tanks.
Their goal was to capture the small towns of Barga, Sommocolonia, Vergemoli, Treppignana, Coreglia, Fornaci di Barga, Promiana, Castelvecchio and Calomini. These were all north-west of Lucca. By 27 December the attack was over. In the morning, the German troops entered Pian di Coreglia.
The next morning, the Axis troops occupied Piano di Coreglia. The Axis troops got more than 25 kilometres inside the Allies lines.
References[change | change source]
- Oland, Dwight D.. "Northern Apennines 1944-45". The US Army Campaigns of World War II. http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/nap/72-34.htm. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Pellegrinetti, Mario (2003). Appunti per una storia della guerra civile in Garfagnana (1943-1945) (in Italian).. Lucca: Editrice Fazzi. ISBN 978-88-7246-557-8..
- Moseley, Ray (2004). Mussolini: the last 600 days of il Duce. Lanham: Taylor Trade Publications. pp. 156. ISBN 1-58979-095-2. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=UmxaWvOL_IgC&pg=PA156&lpg=PA156&dq=Lucca+mussolini+offensive&source=bl&ots=LhOkoRdxAa&sig=w7xWHvI-wiBj1oskq9aSvJgGp3k&hl=en&ei=4ZI9SpfPNo3atgOww5i7Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result#v=onepage&q=Lucca%20mussolini%20offensive&f=false.
- Jackson, General Sir William & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004). The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume VI: Victory in the Mediterranean, Part 3 - November 1944 to May 1945. History of the Second World War. Uckfield: UK: Naval & Military Press. pp. 126-127. ISBN 1-84574-072-6..
- Fiaschi, Cesare (1999). La guerra sulla linea gotica occidentale (in Italian).. Bologna: Editoriale Lo Scarabeo.. pp. 93. ISBN 978-8884780263.