Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Born 11 December 1931
Kuchwada Village, Bareli Tehsil, Raisen Distt. Bhopal State, British India (modern day Madhya Pradesh, India)
Died 19 January 1990 (aged 58)
Pune, Maharashtra, India
Nationality Indian
Field Spirituality
Movement Jivan Jagruti Andolan; Neo-sannyas
Works Many books, audio and video tapes (exact number not known)
Influenced by Zen Buddhism, Tantra, Sufism, Samkhya, Krishna, Gautama Buddha, Mahavira, Bodhidharma, Lao Tzu, Gorakhnath, Guru Nanak, Kabir, Gurdjieff, Krishnamurti
Rajneesh greeted by sannyasins on one of his daily "drive-bys" in Rajneeshpuram. ~1982

Rajneesh (11 December 1931 – 19 January 1990) was an Indian mystic, guru, and spiritual teacher who had an international following, the "Rajneesh movement". Rajneesh was born Chandra Mohan Jain; he was known as the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh during the 1970s and 1980s, and finally as Osho in the last year of his life.

Early life[change | change source]

He was born in small village called kuchwada Madhya Pradesh state in north India. He spent most of his childhood with his maternal grandparents, which he later mentioned as "the blessing in his life" for its carefree environment.

He entered college at his age of nineteen. Asked by the principal to leave the college, he transferred to D.N. Jain College and completed his B.A. in philosophy in 1955. After obtaining his M.A. in philosophy in University of Sagar in 1957, he started teaching at Raipur Sanskrit College and became a professor at Jabalpur University in 1960. While teaching at colleges, he became known as a public speaker.

Academic[change | change source]

As a professor of philosophy, he travelled throughout India in the 1960s as a public speaker. His outspoken criticism of socialism, Mahatma Gandhi and institutionalised religions made him controversial. He also advocated a more open attitude towards sexuality: so the press called him a "sex guru".[1] In 1970, Rajneesh settled for a while in Bombay. He began initiating disciples (known as sannyasins) and took on the role of a spiritual teacher.

In his discourses, he reinterpreted writings of religious traditions, mystics, and philosophers from around the world. Moving to Poona in 1974,[2] he established an ashram that attracted increasing numbers of Westerners and Indians.

Ashrams[change | change source]

Poona[change | change source]

The Poona ashram was by all accounts an exciting and intense place to be, with an emotionally charged, madhouse-carnival atmosphere.[3][4][5] The day began at 6:00 a.m. with Dynamic Meditation.[6][7] From 8:00 a.m., Osho gave a 60- to 90-minute spontaneous lecture in the ashram's "Buddha Hall" auditorium, commenting on religious writings or answering questions from visitors and disciples.[3][7] Until 1981, lecture series held in Hindi alternated with series held in English. During the day, various meditations and therapies took place, whose intensity was ascribed to the spiritual energy of Osho's "buddhafield".[4] In evening darshans, Osho conversed with individual disciples or visitors and initiated disciples ("gave sannyas").[3][7]

The ashram offered therapies derived from the Human Potential Movement to its Western audience and made news in India and abroad, chiefly because of its permissive climate and Osho's provocative lectures. By the end of the 1970s, there were mounting tensions with the Indian government and the surrounding society.

A situation rose when Rajneesh entered a three-and-a-half-year period of self-imposed public silence on 10 April 1981. He occupied himself with satsangs—silent sitting with music and readings from spiritual works, and gave no discourses.[7][1] Around the same time, Ma Anand Sheela replaced Ma Yoga Laxmi as Osho's secretary.[5]

Oregon[change | change source]

Later in 1981 Osho moved to the United States, and his followers established a community, later known as Rajneeshpuram, in the state of Oregon. Within a year, the leadership of the commune became embroiled in a conflict with local residents, primarily over land use, which was marked by hostility on both sides. Osho lived in a trailer next to a covered swimming pool and other amenities. He did not lecture and only saw most of the residents when, daily, he would slowly drive past them as they stood by the road. He gained public notoriety for the many Rolls-Royces bought for his use, eventually numbering 93 vehicles.[8][9] This made him the largest single owner of the cars in the world.[10]

Influence of Ma Anand Sheela[change | change source]

Ma Anand Sheela (born Sheela Ambatal Patel, 28 December 1949) was Osho's personal secretary from 1981 to 1985. On 10 July 1981, she purchased the 64,000-acre (260 km2) Big Muddy Ranch to create the Rajneeshpuram, Oregon commune.[11][12] She was the main manager and spokesperson. She carried a .357 Magnum handgun, and created a Rajneeshpuram police force armed with Uzi submachine guns and a Jeep-mounted .30-calibre machinegun.[13][14]

Sheela ran the operations of virtually all of the sub-groups under Rajneesh's movement, as well as Rajneeshpuram itself.[12] Rancho Rajneesh was administered through the inner circle of followers managed by Sheela.[12]

The Oregon commune collapsed in 1985.

After the collapse[change | change source]

Twenty-one countries denied him entry, causing Osho to travel the world before returning to Poona, where he died in 1990. His ashram is today known as the Osho International Meditation Resort. His teachings emphasised the importance of meditation, awareness, love, celebration, courage, creativity and humour—qualities that he viewed as being suppressed by adherence to static belief systems, religious tradition and socialisation. Osho's teachings have had an impact on Western New Age thought,[15]Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag[16]p182

One of his strong hopes was creating what he called "new man", who embodies characteristics of Gautama Buddha and Zorba the Greek [17] at the same time. Through this concept, Rajneesh tried to reject neither science nor spirituality, but embrace them both. According to him, “New man” is not subject to one’s sex and does not belong to institutions such as family, political ideologies, or religions.

Books by Rajneesh[change | change source]

Many books of his teachings were published. They followed a pattern: he would give talks, they would be recorded. The tapes would be worked up into a typed manuscript by some of his followers. The manuscripts would be published, at first in India, and without ISBN numbers, so they were at first bought by his admirers. Later some of the best were reprinted in the West. His talks covered a wide range of religions and philosophies. The total number of books is not known, but it was certainly more than 30.[18]

  • 1974 The book of the secrets I: discourses on Vigyana Bhairava Tantra. The Rajneesh Foundation, Poona, India. Reprinted 1976 by Thames & Hudson, London. ISBN 0 500 27076 7. This book is about meditation, and there were four more volumes.
  • 1975. Roots and wings: talks on Zen. Rajneesh Foundation, Poona, India.
  • 1975. And the flowers showered: talks on Zen. Rajneesh Foundation, Poona, India.
  • 1976. The hidden harmony: discourses on the fragments of Heraclitus. Rajneesh Foundation, Poona, India.
  • 1976. When the shoe fits: talks on Chuang Tzu. Rajneesh Foundation, Poona, India.
  • 1977. Ancient music in the pines: talks on Zen stories. Rajneesh Foundation, Poona, India.

listed without dates:

  • The ultimate alchemy, vols I & II.
  • Yoga: the alpha and the omega. vols I and II
  • Vedanta: seven steps to the Samadhi.
  • The way of the white cloud.
  • No water no moon: talks on Zen. (UK edition Sheldon Press)
  • The mustard seed: discourses on the sayings of Jesus.
  • Neither this nor that: discourses on Sosan–Zen
  • Tantra: the supreme understanding. (U.S. edition: Only one sky)
  • Just like that: discourses on Sufi stories.
  • Until you die: discourses on Sufi stories.
  • I am the gate. Harper & Row, New York.
  • The inward revolution.
  • TAO: the three treasures: discourses on Lao Tzu, vols I–IV.
  • Tantra, spirituality and sex. Published in the U.S.A.
  • Meditation: the art of ecstasy. Harper & Row, New York.
  • Come follow mw: discourses on the life of Jesus.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Joshi, Vasant 1982. The Awakened One. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-064205-X
  2. these moves were funded by support from a few of his wealthiest followers.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 FitzGerald, Frances 1986. Rajneeshpuram, The New Yorker. [1]
  4. 4.0 4.1 Fox, Judith M. 2002. Osho Rajneesh. Studies in Contemporary Religion Series, #4, Salt Lake City: Signature Books. ISBN 1-56085-156-2
  5. 5.0 5.1 Gordon, James S. 1987. The Golden Guru. Lexington, MA: Stephen Greene Press. ISBN 0-8289-0630-0
  6. Aveling, Harry 1994. The Laughing Swamis. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1118-6
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Mullan, Bob 1983. Life as laughter: following Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0043-9
  8. Aveling, Harry (ed) 1999. Osho Rajneesh and his disciples: some western perceptions. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (includes studies by Susan J. Palmer, Lewis F. Carter, Roy Wallis, Carl Latkin, Ronald O. Clarke and others previously published in various academic journals) ISBN 81-208-1599-8
  9. Pellissier, Hank (14 May 2011). "The Bay Citizen: Red Rock Island". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  10. Ranjit Lal, (16 May 2004). A hundred years of solitude. The Hindu. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  11. Oregon Historical Society, 2002
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Carus51.
  13. Coster P. 10 May 1985. A Pistol-Packin' Sheela with a tongue to match. The Courier-Mail.
  14. Turner, G. (10 May 1985). "Bhagwan hits out as Commune chiefs flee". The Courier-Mail.
  15. Heelas, Paul 1996. The New Age movement: religion, culture and society in the age of postmodernity. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 40, 68, 72, 77, 95–96. ISBN 0-631-19332-422
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named GIA.
  17. from the novel by Nikos Kazantzakis
  18. Ancient music in the pines dated December 1977, lists 28 titles (some with four or five volumes). There were definitely more published after that date.

Further reading[change | change source]

  • Osho (2000), Autobiography of a spiritually incorrect mystic, New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-25457-1.
  • Carrette, Jeremy; King, Richard (2004), Selling spirituality: the silent takeover of religion, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-41530-209-9.

Other websites[change | change source]