Bibliography (Greek βίβλος = book γραφή = write) is the arrangement of printed books and articles according to author or subject, and the publication of lists of titles. Bibliographies are of many different kinds and may be annotated with information about their contents. Bibliographies may be organized in various ways, such as by authors, subjects or date of publication. Bibliographies without annotations are sometimes given the modest title of checklists.
Another meaning of Bibliography is the academic study of books as physical and cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology. This kind of bibliography is not concerned with the written content of books, but rather the "bookness" of books-–how they were designed, edited, printed, circulated, reprinted and collected.