Boston

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Boston
State Capital
City of Boston
Clockwise: Skyline of Back Bay seen from the Charles River, Fenway Park, Christian Science Church, Boston Common and the Downtown Crossing skyline, skyline of the Financial District seen from the Boston Harbor, and Massachusetts State House
Clockwise: Skyline of Back Bay seen from the Charles River, Fenway Park, Christian Science Church, Boston Common and the Downtown Crossing skyline, skyline of the Financial District seen from the Boston Harbor, and Massachusetts State House
Flag of Boston
Flag
Official seal of Boston
Seal
Nickname(s): Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe), The Cradle of Liberty,[1] The Cradle of Modern America, The Athens of America,[1] The Walking City
Motto: Sicut patribus sit Deus nobis (Latin "As God was with our fathers, so may He be with us")
Location in Suffolk County, Massachusetts
Location in Suffolk County, Massachusetts
Boston is located in USA
Boston
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 42°21′28″N 71°03′42″W / 42.35778°N 71.06167°W / 42.35778; -71.06167Coordinates: 42°21′28″N 71°03′42″W / 42.35778°N 71.06167°W / 42.35778; -71.06167
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Suffolk
Settled September 17, 1630
Incorporated (city) March 4, 1822
Government
 • Type Strong mayor – council
 • Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D)
Area[2][3][4]
 • State Capital 89.63 sq mi (232.14 km2)
 • Land 48.43 sq mi (125.43 km2)
 • Water 41.21 sq mi (106.73 km2)
 • Urban 1,774 sq mi (4,595 km2)
 • Metro 4,511 sq mi (11,683 km2)
 • CSA 10,644 sq mi (27,568 km2)
Elevation 141 ft (43 m)
Population [5]
 • State Capital 617,594 ('10 census)
 • Density 12,752/sq mi (4,924/km2)
 • Urban 4,032,484 ('00 census)
 • Metro 4,522,858 ('08 est.)
 • CSA 7,609,358 ('09 est.)
 • Demonym Bostonian
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s)
Area code(s) 617 and 857
FIPS code 25-07000
GNIS feature ID 0617565
Website www.cityofboston.gov

Boston is the capital city of Massachusetts in the United States. It was founded in 1630. Boston is one of the oldest, wealthiest and most culturally important cities in the United States.

History[change | change source]

Boston was founded on November 17, 1630, by Puritan colonists from England. Boston's early European settlers called the area Trimountaine (Three Mountains). They renamed the town for Boston, England, in Lincolnshire because many important "Pilgrim" colonists came from there.

Most of Boston's early citizens were Puritans. Shortly after Boston's settlement, Puritans created America's first public school and America's first university, Harvard University (1636). Harvard is in the city of Cambridge, which is across the Charles River from Boston. Until the 1760s, Boston was America's largest city.

During the early 1770s, the British tried to control the thirteen colonies with taxes. This made people from Boston start the American Revolution. The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and several early battles happened in or near the city. It held its first town meeting in Faneuil Hall in 1743.[7]

Boston continued to grow and attract immigrants from around the world. Many immigrants came from Ireland, and gave Boston a very Irish culture that remains today. President John F. Kennedy was a member of an Irish-American family that lived in Boston. Many immigrants also came from Italy, and lived in Boston's North End, where Italian culture remains, with various Italian stores, restaurants, bakeries, and homes.

On 15 April 2013, two bombs exploded at the Boston Marathon.[8]

Geography[change | change source]

Boston is located on the Shawmut Peninsula. The city covers 48 square miles. Boston Harbor and the Atlantic Ocean is located east of the city. A much larger metropolitan area surrounds Boston.

The highest point in Boston is Bellevue Hill, at 330 feet above sea level. The lowest point is at sea level.[9] Boston is the only state capital in the contiguous United States with an ocean coastline.[10]

Climate[change | change source]

Boston has a continental climate with some ocean effects. Summers are normally warm to hot, rainy, and humid, while winters alternate between periods of cold rain and snow, with cold temperatures. Spring and fall are usually mild. Existing wind patterns that blow offshore lower the effect of the Atlantic Ocean.[11]

The hottest month is July, with a normal temperature of 73.4°F. The coldest month is January, with a normal of 29.0°F. Extremes have ranged from −18°F on February 9, 1934, up to 104°F on July 4, 1911.

Boston's location on the North Atlantic moderates its temperature, but makes the city very likely to suffer from to Nor'easter weather systems that can produce much snow and rain. The city averages 43.7in of precipitation a year, with 45.1in of snowfall a year.

Towers[change | change source]

The tallest towers in Boston are the Prudential Tower and the John Hancock Tower.

Culture[change | change source]

Boston has a culture that is quite similar to New England, such as a New England accent and foods that are mostly seafood, salt, and dairy products. Irish-Americans are very important in Boston's politics and religious activities. Boston people also have a style of talking which is called Boston slang.[12]

It is often thought that Bostonians have a strong sense of culture. Perhaps this is because Boston is famous for being a very intellectual place, with much of its culture coming from its universities.[13][14] The city has many complex theatres, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Boston Opera House, Citi Performing Arts Center, the Colonial Theater, and the Orpheum Theatre. The headquarters of Unitarian Universalism (UU) is located in Boston. The Christian Science movement has also made its home in the Boston area.

Boston has many historic places and Bostonians take pride in their city's history. The American Revolution began in Boston, and many of its leaders, such as Samuel Adams, John Adams, John Hancock, and Paul Revere were from the city. Many of the sites from the Revolution are preserved in the city, including Faneuil Hall, the Old State House, Park Street Church, and others. These form the "Freedom Trail", a walk that takes visitors past many historic places in the city.

Boston today[change | change source]

Boston is one of the United States' most important cities in education and health care. Boston and the towns around it contain many of the country's leading universities. Harvard, MIT, and Boston University are some of the most famous.

Professional sports are an important part of life in Boston. The Red Sox play baseball at Fenway Park, the oldest stadium in Major League Baseball (1912). The Celtics, a basketball team, and the Bruins, a hockey team, both play at the TD Garden. Boston's football team, the New England Patriots, play in Foxborough, a town 22 miles south of the city.

Demographics[change | change source]

People[change | change source]

In 2013, the population of Boston was 645,966. The population has grown 9.6% since 2000. Boston has 13,339 people per square mile. The population is 47.8% male and 52.2% female. The racial breakdown is shown in the Racial Groups table. The people from outside the United States are 178,805. 27.7% of the population come from outside of the United States.[15]

Racial Groups
Race 2013 [16]
White (includes White Hispanics) 52.9%
Black 24.1%
Amerindian 0.4%
Asian 9.0%
Two or more races 4.5%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 18.8%
Non-Hispanic Whites 45.9%

Homeless Population[change | change source]

The unemployment rate in Boston is 5.9% since June 2014. The 35th annual homeless census from 2015 said there were 7,663 homeless men, women, and children in Boston. The homeless population increased 5.6% since 2013. [17] The number of homeless people sleeping on the streets decreased by 22.8% since 2013. However, the number of adults in emergency shelters has grown by 10.9%. In 2015, the homeless family population increased by 25%. The total number of homeless men, woman, families and children increased by 20.9% from 3,541 to 4,281.

Mayor Marty Walsh announced his goal to help those in need for a permanent housing solution. Agencies such as Pine Street Inn, Boston Healthcare, Project Hope, and Boston Public Health Commission are helping the homeless. The homeless are helped by reducing family evictions. Property management companies and nonprofits, such as Project Hope and the Department of Neighborhood Development, will increase affordable housing options. Boston Public Health Commission and the Department of Neighborhood Development will work together to provide support for treatment options and shelters. The Wyman Re-Entry Center has a 90-day residential substance-abuse and recovery program. The Safe Harbor serves adults with HIV. The project SOAR stands for Stability, Opportunity, Achievement, and Recovery, and helps clients maintain a healthy lifestyle and provide support in moving to permanent housing.[18]

Education[change | change source]

Over 85.6% of the population ages 20 years and over in Boston have a high school diploma or higher in 2013. Those with a Bachelor's degree or higher make up 45.2% of the population. [19]


Some of the Colleges and Universities in Boston are:

  • Baystate College
  • Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology
  • Berklee College of Music
  • Boston University
  • Boston College
  • Bunker Hill Community College
  • Emerson College
  • Emmanuel College
  • Fisher College
  • Massachusetts College of Art and Design
  • MGH Institute of Health Professions
  • New England College of Business and Finance
  • Northeastern University
  • School of the Museum of Fine Arts Boston
  • Simmons College
  • Suffolk University
  • Wentworth Institute of Technology
  • Wheelock College
  • University of Massachusetts Boston

There are many more not listed here.[20]

Transportation[change | change source]

The MBTA runs the city's subway (known as "the T"), commuter rail, buses, and ferries. The main airport for the city is Logan International Airport.

The main highways for the area are:

Number Highway
93 I-93.svg Interstate 93
90 I-90.svg Interstate 90
95 I-95.svg Interstate 95
495 I-495.svg Interstate 495
Tunnels
Tunnel Carries Opened Notes
Boston Harbor tunnels
Sumner Tunnel Route 1A South 1934 Toll of $3.50 for non-commercial vehicles and $5.25 for commercial vehicles.
Callahan Tunnel Route 1A North 1961 Repair work to this tunnel caused complete closure of the tunnel, which began at 11 pm on December 27, 2013 and ended on March 12, 2014.[21]
Ted Williams Tunnel Interstate 90 both East and West 1995 built for the Big Dig
Mainland tunnels
Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel Interstate 93 North and South 2003-2006 built for the Big Dig
Dewey Square Tunnel Interstate 93 south (Congress st to Kneeland st) 1959
City Square Tunnel US Route 1 built for the Big Dig
Bridges
Bridge Name Opened Notes
Charlestown Bridge 1900 connects Charlestown with Downtown area
Leverett Circle Connector Bridge 1999-10-07 connects Storrow Drive with Interstate 93, built for the big dig
Tobin Bridge 1950-02-27 Is more than two miles (3 km) from Charlestown to Chelsea over the Mystic River in Massachusetts. The bridge is the largest in New England.[22]
Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge (Zakim Bridge) 2003 built for the Big Dig, carries Interstate 93 North and South

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Boston Travel & Vacations". Britannia.com. 2006. http://www.britannia.com/travel/Market/boston-vacations.html. Retrieved April 8, 2009.
  2. "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-context=gct&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-CONTEXT=gct&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_US12S&-tree_id=4001&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US25&-format=ST-7. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
  3. "United States by Urbanized Area; and for Puerto Rico". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-context=gct&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_US12S&-CONTEXT=gct&-tree_id=808&-redoLog=true&-geo_id=&-format=US-12. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
  4. "United States by County by State, and for Puerto Rico". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-context=gct&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1_US25&-CONTEXT=gct&-tree_id=808&-redoLog=true&-geo_id=&-format=US-25. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
  5. "Alphabetically sorted list of Census 2000 Urbanized Areas" (TXT). United States Census Bureau, Geography Division. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/ua/ua2k.txt. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
  6. "ZIP Code Lookup – Search By City". United States Postal Service. http://zip4.usps.com/zip4/citytown.jsp. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
  7. , http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1998-03-14/news/9803140635_1_laurie-london-einstein-worked-eastman, retrieved 2010-03-14
  8. http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/15/us/boston-marathon-explosions
  9. "Bellevue Hill, Massachusetts". Peakbagger.com. http://www.peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=6759.
  10. Univ. of Alabama geography dept.. "US Map and State Capitals". CSGNetwork.com. http://www.csgnetwork.com/usamapstcap.html. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
  11. "Weather". City of Boston. 2013. http://www.cityofboston.gov/arts/film/weather.asp. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
  12. Baker, Billy (2008-05-25). "Wicked good Bostonisms come, and mostly go". The Boston Globe (Boston.com). http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2008/05/25/my_word/. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
  13. "Boston Culture". Columbus Travel Media Ltd.. http://www.worldtravelguide.net/city/16/culture/North-America/Boston.html. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  14. Phelan, Joseph (November 2004). "Boston Marathon". Artcyclopedia.
  15. City-Data. "Boston, Massachusetts". City-Data.com. Onboard Informatics. http://www.city-data.com/city/Boston-Massachusetts.html. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  16. Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results". census.gov. http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_13_1YR_DP05&prodType=table.
  17. Boston Public Health Commission, (BPHC). "Annual Homeless Census. City of Boston 35th Annual Homeless Census Emergency Shelter Commission. (Winter 2014 – 2015". Boston Public Health Commission. http://www.bphc.org/whatwedo/homelessness/emergency-shelter-commission/Pages/Annual-Homeless-Census.aspx. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  18. City of Boston. "Mayor Walsh Releases Results of 2013 Homeless Census". City of Boston. http://m.cityofboston.gov/news/default.aspx?id=6507. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  19. City-Data. "Boston, Massachusetts". City-Data.com. Onboard Informatics. http://www.city-data.com/city/Boston-Massachusetts.html. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  20. City-Data. "Boston, Massachusetts". City-Data.com. Onboard Informatics. http://www.city-data.com/city/Boston-Massachusetts.html. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  21. Hanson, Melissa. "Callahan Tunnel closure begins at 11 p.m.". Boston Globe. Boston Globe. http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2013/12/27/callahan-tunnel-closing-begins-friday/eCLWjIjgfmXAzTzlwzmYGM/story.html. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  22. Abel, David (2007-10-23). "Work never stops on Tobin bridge: Costs rising as crews try to maintain old structure". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2007/10/23/work_never_stops_on_tobin_bridge/.

Related pages[change | change source]

Further reading[change | change source]

  • Boston: A to Z (2000), Thomas H. O'Connor, ISBN 0674003101
  • Built in Boston: City and Suburb, 1800–2000 (2000), Douglass Shand-Tucci, ISBN 1558492011
  • Lost Boston (1999), Mariner Books, ISBN 0395966108
  • Boston: A Topographical History, Third Enlarged Edition (2000), Belknap Press, ISBN 0674002687
  • When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac (2004), Northeastern, ISBN 1555536204
  • Gaining Ground: A History of Landmaking in Boston (2003), Nancy S. Seasholes, ISBN 0262194945
  • Boston's Secret Spaces: 50 Hidden Corners In and Around the Hub, (2009), Globe Pequot; First edition ISBN 0762750626
  • AIA Guide to Boston, 3rd Edition: Contemporary Landmarks, Urban Design, Parks, Historic Buildings and Neighborhoods, (2008), Michael Southworth and Susan Southworth, GPP Travel, ISBN 0762743379
  • Boston: A Pictorial Celebration (2006), Jonathan M. Beagle, Elan Penn (photographer), ISBN 1402719779
  • City in Time: Boston (2008), Jeffrey Hantover, Gilbert King (photographer), ISBN 1402733003
  • Mapping Boston (2001), Alex Krieger (editor), David Cobb (editor), Amy Turner (editor), Norman B. Leventhal (Foreword by) MIT Press, ISBN 0262611732
  • Boston Beheld: Antique Town and Country Views (2008), D. Brenton Simons, University Press of New England, ISBN 1584657405
  • Boston (2010) by Jordan Worek; photographs by Bill Horsman, Firefly Books, ISBN 1554075912

Other websites[change | change source]