Brazil (1985 movie)

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Brazil
Directed byTerry Gilliam
Produced byArnon Milchan
Screenplay by
Starring
Music byMichael Kamen
CinematographyRoger Pratt
Edited byJulian Doyle
Production
companies
Distributed by20th Century Fox
(International)[2]
Universal Pictures
(USA & Canada)
Release date
  • 22 February 1985 (1985-02-22) (United Kingdom)
  • 18 December 1985 (1985-12-18) (United States)
Running time
143 minutes[5]
Country
  • United Kingdom
  • United States[1][6]
LanguageEnglish
Budget$15 million[7]
Box office$9.9 million (North America)[8]

Brazil is a 1985 dystopian science fiction film.[9][10]

The film is about Sam Lowry. He is trying to find a woman who appears in his dreams. He has a mind-numbing job. He lives in a small apartment. The film is set in a dystopian world, where people rely on poorly maintained machines.

The film stars Jonathan Pryce and features Robert De Niro, Kim Greist, Michael Palin, Katherine Helmond, Bob Hoskins and Ian Holm. It was directed by Terry Gilliam, and written by Gilliam, Charles McKeown, and Tom Stoppard.

Brazil is a satire of bureaucratic, totalitarian government. It is similar to George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four.[11][12][13]

It has been called Kafkaesque and absurdist.[13][14]

The film is named after the theme song, Ary Barroso's "Aquarela do Brasil". This is known simply as "Brazil" to British audiences.[15]

The film was successful in Europe. The film was unsuccessful in its initial North America release. It has since become a cult film. In 1999, the British Film Institute voted Brazil the 54th greatest British film of all time.

In 2017, in a poll of 150 actors, directors, writers, producers and critics for Time Out magazine it was ranked the 24th best British film ever.[16]

Plot[change | change source]

The film is set in a dystopian, bureaucratic future. Sam Lowry is a low-level government employee. He daydreams, seeing himself as a winged warrior saving a damsel in distress. A fly gets jammed in a printer and creates an error. This results in the arrest of Archibald Buttle instead of Archibald Tuttle. Buttle dies during interrogation. Tuttle is a rebel air conditioning repairman and suspected terrorist.

Sam is assigned the task of putting things right. Sam visits Buttle's widow and meets their neighbour, Jill Layton. He is astonished to discover that she looks like the woman in his dream. Jill has been trying to help Mrs Buttle to find out what happened to her husband. Her efforts have been blocked by bureaucracy. Unknown to her, she is now considered a terrorist accomplice of Tuttle. This is due to her attempt to report the mistake of Buttle's arrest.

Sam reports a fault in his apartment's air conditioning. Central Services wont help. Tuttle, unexpectedly, comes to his assistance. Tuttle used to work for Central Services. He left because of his dislike of the paperwork. Tuttle repairs Sam's air conditioning. Two Central Services workers, Spoor and Dowser, then arrive. Sam has to distract them to let Tuttle escape. The workers later return to smash Sam's air conditioning under the pretence of fixing it.

Sam discovers that the only way to learn about Jill is to be promoted to Information Retrieval. Here he will be able to access her classified records. He had previously turned down a promotion arranged by his mother, Ida. She is obsessed with having plastic surgery by cosmetic surgeon Dr Jaffe. At Ida's party, Sam speaks with Deputy Minister Mr Helpmann. He gets his promotion.

Sam gets Jill's records. He tracks her down before she can be arrested. He then falsifies the records to say she is dead. This allows her to escape. The two share a romantic night together. They are arrested by the government at gunpoint. Sam is charged with treason for abusing his new position. Sam is restrained in a chair in a large room. He is to be tortured by his old friend, Jack Lint. Sam is told that Jill was killed while resisting arrest.

Jack is about to start the torture. Tuttle breaks into the Ministry, shoots Jack, rescues Sam, and blows up the Ministry building.

Sam and Tuttle flee together. Tuttle disappears amid a mass of scraps of paperwork from the destroyed building.

Sam stumbles into the funeral of Ida's friend. The friend had died following too much cosmetic surgery. Sam discovers that his mother now resembles Jill. She is too busy being fawned over by young men to care about her son's plight.

Guards disrupt the funeral. Sam falls into the open casket. He falls through a black void. He lands in a street from his daydreams. He tries to escape police and monsters by climbing a pile of flexible tubes.

He opens a door and goes through it. He is surprised to find himself in a truck driven by Jill. The two leave the city together.

However, this "happy ending" is a delusion. In reality, he is still strapped to the chair. It is implied that he has been lobotomised by Jack.[17] Realising that Sam has descended into blissful insanity, Jack and Mr Helpmann declare him a lost cause and leave the room. Sam remains in the chair, smiling and humming "Aquarela do Brasil".

Cast[change | change source]

Main cast[change | change source]

  • Jonathan Pryce as Sam Lowry. Pryce has described the role as one of the highlights of his career.[18] Tom Cruise was also considered for the role.[19]
  • Kim Greist as Jill Layton. Gilliam's first choice for the part was Ellen Barkin; also considered were Jamie Lee Curtis, Rebecca De Mornay, Rae Dawn Chong, Joanna Pacuła, Rosanna Arquette, Kelly McGillis, and Madonna.[20] Gilliam was reportedly dissatisfied with Greist's performance, and chose to cut or edit some of her scenes as a result.[20]
  • Robert De Niro as Archibald "Harry" Tuttle. De Niro still wanted a part in the film after being denied that of Jack Lint, so Gilliam offered him the smaller role of Tuttle.[21]
  • Katherine Helmond as Mrs. Ida Lowry. According to Helmond, Gilliam called her and said, "I have a part for you, and I want you to come over and do it, but you're not going to look very nice in it." The make-up was applied by Gilliam's wife, Maggie. During production, Helmond spent ten hours a day with a mask glued to her face; her scenes had to be postponed due to the blisters this caused.[22]
  • Ian Holm as Mr. Kurtzmann, Sam's boss.
  • Bob Hoskins as Spoor, a government-employed heating engineer who resents Harry Tuttle.
  • Michael Palin as Jack Lint. Robert De Niro read the script and expressed interest in the role, but Gilliam had already promised the part to Palin, a friend and regular collaborator. Palin described the character as "someone who was everything that Jonathan Pryce's character wasn't: he's stable, he had a family, he was settled, comfortable, hard-working, charming, sociable – and utterly and totally unscrupulous. That was the way we felt we could bring out the evil in Jack Lint."[23]
  • Ian Richardson as Mr. Warrenn, Sam's new boss at Information Retrieval.
  • Peter Vaughan as Mr. Helpmann, the Deputy Minister of Information.

Supporting cast[change | change source]

Cameos[change | change source]

  • Co-writer Charles McKeown as Harvey Lime, Sam's co-worker.
  • Director Terry Gilliam as the smoking man at Shang-ri La Towers.

Production[change | change source]

Writing[change | change source]

Gilliam developed the story and wrote the first draft of the screenplay with Charles Alverson. Alverson was paid for his work but was uncredited.[24]

Gilliam, McKeown, and Stoppard collaborated on further drafts. Brazil was developed under the titles The Ministry and 1984 ½. This refered to Orwell's original Nineteen Eighty-Four and also to by Federico Fellini. Gilliam cites Fellini as one of this directing influences.[25] During the film's production, other working titles floated about. These included The Ministry of Torture, How I Learned to Live with the System—So Far,[26] and So That's Why the Bourgeoisie Sucks.[27] The final choice of Brazil related to the name of the signature tune.

In an interview with Salman Rushdie, Gilliam stated:

Brazil came specifically from the time, from the approaching of 1984. It was looming. In fact, the original title of Brazil was 1984 ½. Fellini was one of my great gods and it was 1984, so let’s put them together. Unfortunately, that bastard Michael Radford did a version of 1984 and he called it 1984, so I was blown.[28]

Gilliam sometimes refers to this film as the second in his "Trilogy of Imagination" films, starting with Time Bandits (1981) and ending with The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1988).[29] All are about the "craziness of our awkwardly ordered society and the desire to escape it through whatever means possible."[29] All three movies focus on these struggles and attempts to escape them through imagination—Time Bandits, through the eyes of a child, Brazil, through the eyes of a man in his thirties, and Munchausen, through the eyes of an elderly man. In 2013, Gilliam also called Brazil the first instalment of a dystopian satire trilogy it forms with 1995's 12 Monkeys and 2013's The Zero Theorem[30] (though he would later deny having said this[31]).

Gilliam has stated that Brazil was inspired by George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Though he has admitted he has never read it.[21] Critics have pointed out many similarities and differences between the two.[13]

The form 27B/6 in Brazil is an allusion to George Orwell's flat at 27B Canonbury Square, London. This is where Orwell lived while writing parts of Nineteen Eighty-Four.[32][33]

Production design[change | change source]

Gilliam's often uses very wide lenses and tilted camera angles. These go unusually wide compared with mainstream Hollywood productions. Gilliam made the film's wide-angle shots with 14mm (Zeiss), 11mm, and 9.8mm (Kinoptik) lenses. The 9.8mm lens was a recent technological innovation. It was one of the first very short focal length lens that did not fish-eye.[34] Over the years, the 14mm lens has become informally known as "The Gilliam" among film-makers. This is due to the director's frequent use of it since Brazil.[35]

Music[change | change source]

Geoff Muldaur performed a version of Ary Barroso's famous 1939 song "Aquarela do Brasil". The name means "Watercolor of Brazil". It is often simply called "Brazil" in English.

The music was arranged by Michael Kamen. His orchestration for the film made it more acceptable to modern tastes. This version is often used in contexts that have little to do with Brazil and more to do with Gilliam's dystopian vision.[36]

Kamen, who scored the film, originally recorded "Brazil" with vocals by Kate Bush. This recording was not included in the actual film or the original soundtrack release. It has been included on later releases of the soundtrack.

Gilliam recalls drawing the inspiration to use the song:[37]

This place was a métallurgie city, where everything was covered by a gray metallic dust... Even the beach was completely covered by dust, it was really dusky. The sun was going down and was very beautiful. The contrast was extraordinary. I had this image of a man sitting there in this sordid beach with a portable radio, tuned in those strange escapist Latin songs like Brazil. The music took him away somehow and made the world seem less blue to him.

Release[change | change source]

Battle for final cut[change | change source]

The film was produced by Arnon Milchan's company Embassy International Pictures. Gilliam's original cut of the film is 142 minutes long and ends on a dark note. This version was released internationally by 20th Century Fox.

US distribution was handled by Universal, whose executives felt the ending tested poorly. Universal chairman Sid Sheinberg insisted on a dramatic re-edit of the film to give it a happy ending. He suggested testing both versions to see which scored higher.[38] At one point, there were two editing teams working on the film, one without Gilliam's knowledge.[39] A version of Brazil was created by the studio with a more consumer-friendly ending.

There was a lengthy delay with no sign of the film being released. Gilliam took out a full-page ad in the trade magazine Variety urging Sheinberg to release Brazil in its intended version. Sheinberg spoke publicly of his dispute with Gilliam in interviews and ran his own advertisement in Daily Variety offering to sell the film.[40] Gilliam conducted private screenings of Brazil (without the studio's approval) for film schools and local critics. On the same night Universal's award contender Out of Africa premiered in New York, Brazil was awarded the Los Angeles Film Critics Association award for "Best Picture".[41] This prompted Universal to finally agree to release a modified 132-minute version supervised by Gilliam, in 1985.[29][42]

Reception[change | change source]

On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 98% rating. The site's critical consensus reads "Brazil, Terry Gilliam's visionary Orwellian fantasy, is an audacious dark comedy, filled with strange, imaginative visuals."[43]

On Metacritic, it received an 88%.[44]

Kenneth Turan, critic with the Los Angeles Times, described the film as "the most potent piece of satiric political cinema since Dr. Strangelove".[29]

Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote "Terry Gilliam's Brazil, a jaunty, wittily observed vision of an extremely bleak future, is a superb example of the power of comedy to underscore serious ideas, even solemn ones."[45]

Roger Ebert was less enthusiastic in the Chicago Sun-Times, giving the film two out of four stars and claiming that it was "hard to follow".[46]

Accolades[change | change source]

In 2004, Total Film named Brazil the 20th-greatest British movie of all time.

In 2005, Time film reviewers Richard Corliss and Richard Schickel named Brazil as one of the 100 best films of all time.

In 2006, Channel 4 voted Brazil one of the "50 Films to See Before You Die", shortly before its broadcast on FilmFour.

The film is number 83 in Empire magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Films of All Time.[47]

Wired ranked Brazil number 5 in its list of the top 20 sci-fi movies.[48]

Entertainment Weekly listed Brazil as the sixth-best science-fiction piece of media released since 1982.[49] The magazine also ranked the film No. 13 on their list of "The Top 50 Cult Films".[50]

The film was nominated for two Academy Awards; Original Screenplay and Best Art Direction.[51]

According to Gilliam in an interview with Clive James in his online programme Talking in the Library, Brazil is—to his surprise—apparently a favourite film of the far right in America.[52]

Home media[change | change source]

Brazil has been released four times by The Criterion Collection. as a five-disc LaserDisc box set in 1996, a three-disc DVD box set in 1999 and 2006, a single-disc DVD in 2006, and a two-disc Blu-ray set in 2012. The packaging for the 1999 and 2006 three-disc box sets is identical in appearance, but the latter release is compatible with widescreen televisions.

Except the single-disc version, all versions have the same special features: a 142-minute cut of the film (referred to by Gilliam as the "fifth and final cut"), Sheinberg's 94 minute "Love Conquers All" cut for syndicated television, and various galleries and featurettes.

A Blu-ray of the 132-minute US version of the movie was released in the US on 12 July 2011 by Universal. It contains only that version of the film and no extra features.[53]

Influence[change | change source]

Film[change | change source]

Other films that drew inspiration from Brazil's cinematography, art design, and/or overall atmosphere include Jean-Pierre Jeunet's and Marc Caro's films Delicatessen (1991) and The City of Lost Children (1995),[54] Rocky Morton and Annabel Jankel's Super Mario Bros. (1993), the Coen brothers' The Hudsucker Proxy (1994),[55] and Alex Proyas' Dark City (1998).[56][57]

The production design and lighting style of Tim Burton's Batman have been compared to Brazil.[58] Tim Burton and production designer Anton Furst studied Brazil as a reference for Batman.[59]

The ending of Neil Marshall's The Descent was much inspired by Brazil's, and Marshall explained in an interview that "the original ending for Brazil was a massive inspiration for the original ending of The Descent – the idea that someone can go insane on the outside, but inside they've found happiness."[60]

Technology[change | change source]

The highly technological aesthetics of Brazil inspired the set design of Max Cohen's apartment in the film Pi.[61] Brazil also served as an inspiration for the film Sucker Punch (2011).[62]

Brazil has also been recognised as an inspiration for writers and artists of the steampunk subculture.[63][64][65]

The dystopian premise of 2018's We Happy Few video game is largely inspired by Brazil.[66][67]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 McAuley, Paul (2004). Brazil. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1844577953.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Pym, John (1985). "Brazil". Monthly Film Bulletin (British Film Institute) 52 (612): 107–108. "dist— 20th Century Fox. p.c.— Brazil Productions". .
  3. Hunter, I.Q. (2002). British Science Fiction Cinema. Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 1134702779. pc production company (distributors not given).
  4. Hunter, I.Q. (2002). British Science Fiction Cinema. Routledge. p. 206. ISBN 1134702779. pc Brazil Productions.
  5. "Brazil". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  6. "Brazil (1985)". London: British Film Institute. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  7. "BFI Screenonline: Brazil (1985)". Screenonline. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  8. "Brazil (1985)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  9. "Dystopia and Science Fiction: Blade Runner, Brazil and Beyond". Santa Barbara: University of California Press. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  10. Anders, Charlie Jane (19 October 2015). "50 Brilliant Science Fiction Movies That Everyone Should See At Least Once". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  11. Rogers, Richard A. (5 June 2009). "1984 to Brazil: From the Pessimism of Reality to the Hope of Dreams". Text and Performance Quarterly (London, England: Taylor & Francis) 10 (1): 34–46. http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/rar/papers/RogersTPQ1990.pdf. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  12. Bartz, Rob. Dystopia: A Look at Utopian Societies in Literature (Thesis). Fargo, North Dakota: North Dakota State University. Archived from the original (DOC) on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Podgorski, Daniel (7 January 2016). "1984 with a Sense of Humor: The Surreal, Wonderful, and Haunting Humor of Terry Gilliam's Absurdist Masterpiece, Brazil". The Gemsbok. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  14. Puddicombe, Stephen (4 July 2017). "Brazil: five films that may have influenced Terry Gilliam's dystopian masterpiece". British Film Institute. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  15. Kinnear, Simon (8 March 2014). "Re-Viewed: Terry Gilliam's Prescient Sci-Fi Brazil". Digital Spy. London, England: Bauer Media Group. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  16. Calhoun, Dave; Huddleston, Tom; Jenkins, David; Adams, Derek; Andrew, Geoff; Davies, Adam Lee; Fairclough, Paul; Hammond, Wally (17 February 2017). "The 100 best British films". Time Out. London: Time Out Group Ltd. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  17. Rodgers, Richard A. (1990). "1984 to Brazil: From the Pessimism of Reality to the Hope of Dreams" (PDF). Text and Performance Quarterly. Abingdon, England: Taylor & Francis. pp. 34–46.
  18. Paddock, Terri (17 May 2004). "20 Questions With…Jonathan Pryce". whatsonstage.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  19. Kinnear, Simon (8 March 2014). "Re-Viewed: Terry Gilliam's prescient sci-fi Brazil". Digital Spy. London, England: Bauer Media Group. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Brazil – The Facts". sciflicks.com. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Gilliam, Terry (Director) (1985). "Audio commentary". Brazil. The Criterion Collection.
  22. "Katherine Helmond". Television Academy Foundation. The Interviews. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  23. Morgan, David. "Michel Palin on BRAZIL". wideanglecloseup.com. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  24. McCabe, Bob, ed. (2001). Brazil (The Evolution of the 54th Best British Film Ever Made). London, England: Orion Books Ltd. ISBN 0-7528-3792-3.
  25. Taylor, Rumsey (December 2003). "Terry Gilliam". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  26. Dirks, Tim. "Brazil (1985)". AMC Filmsite.org.
  27. Morris, Wesley (30 April 1999). "Brazil: Paranoia with a dash of Python". San Francisco Examiner. San Francisco, California: Black Press Group.
  28. "Salman Rushdie talks with Terry Gilliam". The Believer (Las Vegas, Nevada: University of Nevada, Las Vegas) 1 (1). March 2003. https://www.believermag.com/issues/200303/?read=interview_gilliam. Retrieved 23 June 2018. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 Matthews, Jack (1996). "Dreaming Brazil". Brazil (Media notes). Gilliam, Terry (director). Criterion Collection.
  30. Pulver, Andrew (2 September 2013). "Terry Gilliam blames internet for the breakdown in 'real relationships'". The Guardian. London, England: guardian Media Group. Retrieved 7 September 2013. Calling it the third part of a trilogy formed by earlier dystopian satires Brazil and 12 Monkeys, Gilliam says ...
  31. Suskind, Alex (17 September 2014). "Interview: Terry Gilliam On 'The Zero Theorem,' Avoiding Facebook, 'Don Quixote' And His Upcoming Autobiography". IndieWire. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 16 October 2017. Well, it's funny, this trilogy was never something I ever said, but it's been repeated so often it's clearly true [laughs]. I don't know who started it but once it started it never stopped ...
  32. Orwell, George; Orwell, Sonia; Angus, Ian (2000). The Collected Essays, Journalism, & Letters, George Orwell: As I please, 1943–1945. 3. David R. Godine. p. 400. 27b Canonbury Square, Islington, London N1, 18 August 1945 [as return address in correspondence]
  33. Jura, Jackie (14 July 2003). "Canonbury Photos". Orwell Today. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  34. Sheehan, Henry (Fall 2006). "Welcome to Brazil". DGA Quarterly: Craft Journal of the Directors Guild of America II (3). https://www.dga.org/Craft/DGAQ/All-Articles/0603-Fall-2006/Shot-to-Remember-Brazil.aspx. Retrieved 31 October 2009. 
  35. Stubbs, Phil. "Terry Gilliam talks Tideland". dreams.
  36. Goldschmitt, Kariann. "From Disney to Gilliam and beyond: orchestrating 'Brazil' for a U.S. audience" (PDF). New College of Florida. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  37. Vugman, Fernando Simão. "From master narratives to simulacra: analysis of Orwell's 1984 and Terry Gillmam's Brazil". repositorio.ufsc.br. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  38. Jack Mathews, The Battle of Brazil (1987), ISBN 0-517-56538-2.
  39. Haley, Guy (2014). Sci-Fi Chronicles: A Visual History of the Galaxy's Greatest Science Fiction. London: Aurum Press. p. 402. ISBN 1781313598.
  40. Carmentay, Rudolph (1989–1990). "Terry Gilliam's Brazil: A Film Director's Quest for Artistic Integrity in a Moral Rights Vacuum". Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts (vol .14): 91. http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/cjla14&page=91&collection=journals#. Retrieved 16 February 2018. 
  41. "Terry Gilliam's battle to release Brazil in US". BBC. 1 December 2011.
  42. Matthews, Jack (1987). The Battle of Brazil. ISBN 0-517-56538-2.
  43. "Brazil (1985)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. 20 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  44. "Brazil Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  45. Maslin, Janet (18 December 1985). "The Screen: 'Brazil', From Terry Gilliam". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  46. Ebert, Roger (17 January 1986). "Brazil". Chicago Sun-Times.
  47. "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Bauer Media Group. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  48. "The Wired Sci-Fi Top 20". Wired (10.06). June 2002. https://www.wired.com/wired/archive/10.06/scifi.html?pg=6. 
  49. Wolk, Josh (7 May 2007). "The Sci-Fi 25: The Genre's Best Since 1982". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 8 May 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  50. "The Top 50 Cult Films". Entertainment Weekly. 23 May 2003. 
  51. "Brazil (1985)". NY Times. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  52. "clivejames.com". Talking in the Library Series 3 - Terry Gilliam. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  53. "Brazil Blu-ray Announced". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  54. Ximena Gallardo C.; C. Jason Smith (2006). Alien Woman: The Making of Lt. Ellen Ripley. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-8264-1910-1.
  55. Ronald Bergan (2000). The Coen Brothers. New York City: Thunder's Mouth Press. pp. 148–162. ISBN 1-56025-254-5.
  56. Hicks, Adrienne. "DARK CITY (1998): Critical Review and Bibliography". Archived from the original on 19 March 2015.
  57. Dunne, Susan (23 February 2006). "Welcome To Dystopia At Trinity's Cinestudio". Hartford Courant.
  58. Kehr, Dave (23 June 1989). "Effects Make Batman A Stylized, Dark Adventure". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  59. Jones, Alan (November 1989). "Batman in Production". Cinefantastique.
  60. Anders, Charlie Jane. "Neil Marshall Explains What He Learned From The Films Of Terry Gilliam". io9. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  61. Adams, Sam (23 July 1998). "Pi Brain". Philadelphia City Paper.
  62. Boucher, Geoff. "'Sucker Punch': Zack Snyder says 'big, crazy fairy tale' influenced by 'Brazil'". Los Angeles Times.
  63. La Ferla, Ruth (8 May 2008). "Steampunk Moves Between 2 Worlds". The New York Times.
  64. Bebergal, Peter (26 August 2007). "The age of steampunk Nostalgia meets the future, joined carefully with brass screws". Boston Globe.
  65. Braiker, Brian (30 October 2007). "Steampunks Twist on Tech". Newsweek.
  66. Hatfield, Daemon. "We Happy Few Gameplay Showcase - IGN Live: E3 2016". YouTube. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  67. Davis, Ben (24 April 2016). "We Happy Few is a roller coaster of creepy vibes and eccentric humor". Destructoid. Retrieved 29 June 2016.

Further reading[change | change source]

  • Bruce Krajewski, "Postmodernism, Allegory, and Hermeneutics in Brazil, in Traveling with Hermes: Hermeneutics and Rhetoric (1992), ISBN 0-87023-815-9.
  • Jack Mathews, The Battle of Brazil (1987), ISBN 0-517-56538-2.

Other websites[change | change source]