|Anthem: "God Save the King/Queen"  |
|Status||Imperial political structure (British India, a quasi-federation of presidencies and provinces directly governed by the British Crown through the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, Princely States, governed by Indian rulers, under the suzerainty of The British Crown exercised through the Viceroy of India)|
|Capital||Calcutta (1858–1911) |
New Delhi (1911–1947)
|Religion||Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism|
|Government||British Colonial Government|
|Monarch of the United Kingdom and Emperor/Empressa|
|The 2nd Viscount Canning (first)|
|The 1st Viscount Mountbatten (last)|
|Secretary of State|
|Lord Stanley (first)|
|The 5th Earl of Listowel (last)|
|Legislature||Imperial Legislative Council|
|23 June 1757 & 10 May 1857|
|2 August 1858|
|18 July 1947|
|14 and 15 August 1947|
|ISO 3166 code||IN|
The British Raj was the rule until 1947 by the British Empire in South Asia. "Raj" is a word in Hindi that means "rule". so "British Raj" means rule by the British Empire in South Asia. The area is now in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. The British Raj is also called the British Indian Empire or the Indian Empire.
The term "British Raj" is used for the direct British rule over areas which had been conquered by the British, known as British India. That included the British influence over many independent princely states. Those areas were governed by their own traditional rulers under the overall authority of the British crown.
Undivided India is another term to mean the whole area of British rule, but it does not take in Burma, which became in 1937 its own British colony. The colony of Aden came under the same government in India from 1858 to 1937, and the same was true for British Somaliland (now part of Somalia) from 1884 to 1898 and Singapore from 1858 to 1867.
British rule ended on 15 August 1947. The borders between India and Pakistan came into effect on the 18 August. Many people died during the partition of India.
The 1861 census showed that the British population in the subcontinent was 125,945. Only 41,862 of them were civilians as compared with 84,083 European officers and men of the Army. In 1880, the standing Indian Army consisted of 66,000 British soldiers, 130,000 natives, and 350,000 soldiers in the princely armies.
References[change | change source]
- Charles Capwell (1987). "Sourindro Mohun Tagore and the National Anthem Project". Ethnomusicology. University of Illinois Press. 31 (3): 407–430. doi:10.2307/851664. JSTOR 851664.
- Interpretation Act 1889 (52 & 53 Vict. c. 63), s. 18.
- Bowen H.V; Mancke, Elizabeth; Reid, John G. 2012. Britain's Oceanic Empire: Atlantic and Indian Ocean worlds c1550–1850. Cambridge University Press
- Mansergh, Nicholas 1974. Constitutional relations between Britain and India. London: HMSO.
- Ernst, W. (1996). "European Madness and Gender in Nineteenth-century British India". Social History of Medicine. 9 (3): 357–82. doi:10.1093/shm/9.3.357. PMID 11618727.
- Robinson, Ronald Edward, & John Gallagher. 1968. Africa and the Victorians: the climax of imperialism. Garden City, NY: Doubleday "'Send the Mild Hindoo:' The Simultaneous Expansion of British Suffrage and Empire∗" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2009.