Republic of Bulgaria
Република България (Bulgarian)
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|3 March 1878|
|5 October 1908|
|110,993.6 km2 (42,854.9 sq mi) (103rd)|
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
|63/km2 (163.2/sq mi) (118th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$180.170 billion (74th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$70.126 billion (72nd)|
• Per capita
medium · decrease
|HDI (2018)|| 0.816|
very high · 52nd
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||BG|
Bulgaria (officially called the Republic of Bulgaria) is a country in south-eastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bulgaria is the south of the River Danube and west of the Black Sea. To the south of Bulgaria is European Turkey, Greece, and North Macedonia. To the north of the Danube is Romania, while to the west of Bulgaria is Serbia.
The capital and the biggest city is Sofia. Their money is called the lev. The Bulgarian government is a member of the European Union and NATO. Rumen Radev became President in 2017. The population of Bulgaria is a little more than 7 million people.
Bulgaria has its own language, called Bulgarian. It is a type of Slavic language. It is related to languages like Serbian and Russian. Bulgaria borders Romania, Serbia, North Macedonia, Greece, Turkey, and the Black Sea. One of the national heroes of Bulgaria is Vasil Levski who led the fight for independence in the late 1800s.
Prehistory[change | change source]
In what is now Bulgaria, many different people and different cultures lived over time. This includes Neolithic, Hamangia culture, Vinča culture, eneolithic, Varna culture (5th millennium BC) and the Bronze Age Ezero culture.
History[change | change source]
Classical Antiquity[change | change source]
Alexander the Great had influence over the people on the 4th century BC.
Medieval Bulgaria[change | change source]
The Bulgars arrived in Thracia in the 7th century. The Bulgars established the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 AD, after a war with the Romans in which the Bulgarians had success. In 1018, the Romans overcame the Bulgarians in war, the Bulgarian state ended, and Bulgaria became part of the Roman Empire again.
Ottoman Bulgaria[change | change source]
The Ottoman Empire took over in 1396, and ruled Bulgaria for about 500 years. The Ottomans had very strict rules and the Bulgarians suffered. The Bulgarians rebelled several times against the Turkish rulers.
19th century[change | change source]
In 1876, there was the April Uprising, a Bulgarian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. In the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), the Russian Empire overcame the Ottomans. In 1878, Bulgaria became, in part, independent, although the Ottomans controlled its foreign policy.
20th century[change | change source]
Bulgaria pulled away from Ottoman Empire's influence with the help of the Russian Empire who were already fighting the Ottomans. But it was not until 1908 that the whole country of Bulgaria was united as modern Bulgaria.
During the first year of World War II Bulgaria said it was neutral and refused to join sides with Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union. Bulgaria's military and economy were had a close connection with Germany. Bulgaria's leaders signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany in March 1941. This let German forces go through Bulgaria to reach Greece.
Bulgaria's troops invaded Greece and Yugoslavia just after the governments of those countries surrendered. Bulgaria occupied the lands of modern North Macedonia and parts of Greece. (Both areas had been part of Bulgaria before the Balkan Wars.) The Bulgarian government also sent Jews to concentration camps and ghettoes in the Holocaust. The king of Bulgaria, Tsar Boris III, died after talking to Hitler in August 1943. Before the Tsar died, the Kingdom of Bulgaria had sent at least 11,343 Jews to the extermination camps.
In 1944 when it became clear that the Allied Powers would win the war, Bulgaria had to find another solution. Their leaders declared that they withdrew from the Axis forces and helped the German army leave the Balkans through Bulgaria. The Soviet Union didn't respect Bulgaria's claim to be neutral. The Red Army invaded Bulgaria in September 1944. At the same time, a new pro-Soviet government took power in Sofia. At this point, the Jews were released from the ghettoes and concentration camps in Bulgaria. The new government joined the Allies, and the military started to attack the German army, which the Bulgarian government had helped to leave Bulgarian lands.
The Soviets replaced the royal monarchy with Communism in 1947 before they withdrew from Bulgaria in 1949. For 40 years, under their leader Todor Zhivkov, Bulgaria was very close to the Soviet Union and followed their instructions. Bulgaria invaded Czechoslovakia to stop the Prague Spring in 1968.
Shortly after the fall of the Berlin Wall, on November 10 1989, the Bulgarian Communist Party gave up their rule and allowed the country to elect leaders of their own choice. But in a few years Bulgaria had serious money problems under the new socialist government. Since that time Bulgaria has recovered in many ways, and is much more stable. It is still one of the poorest countries in Europe. Problems in the administration, a weak court system and organized crime are the biggest issues for Bulgaria.
Economy and Social Welfare[change | change source]
Bulgaria's economy was dependent on the COMECON market. This was a group of communist countries (Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania) that agreed to work together. This group fell apart in 1989 with the fall of communism in Europe. While this was good for personal freedom, it was too much of a change for the businesses and jobs. Also Yugoslavia, their neighbor, fell into a civil war as their country broke apart, and that did not help Bulgaria. Living standards fell by 40 percent as people lost their jobs and their savings were not worth much, and even some new-born babies were sent to orphanages when their parents could not take care of them.
In 1994 Bulgaria had a short economic boom. But that slowed down in 1996 from bad finance deals and other banking problems. In 1997 there was high inflation (the money could not buy as much as it did before). Retired people had little income (their pension did not go up as fast as inflation did) and their savings were not worth very much. Many retired people were begging in the streets for food. But since then the economy has grown steadily. People from outside the country started putting money into businesses and houses, and Bulgarians learned how to make their own businesses.
Today Bulgaria has Europe's lowest income and corporate tax, 10 percent for both individuals and businesses. This makes Bulgaria a very good place for business. Bulgaria also has skilled and educated workers. The average monthly salary in Bulgaria is still cheap at 400 euro or $541 USD.
The state no longer has free health care. This system has been replaced by an insurance plan that people pay for, and drug costs are based on income. Private health care is encouraged nowadays. Help for people who lose their jobs is no longer automatic, but some help is available, based on family status and length of unemployment.
The retirement age for men is 64 years and for women 61 years. It will be 63 years and 9 months for woman and 65 years and 3 months for man in 2032.
Provinces[change | change source]
|Province||Population (Census 2001)||Population (Census 2011)||Population growth (2001/2011)||Land area (km²)||Population density (/km²)||Municipalities|
Society[change | change source]
|Development region||Area (km2)||Population (Census 2011)||Most populous urban center|
There are 6 Bulgarian development regions of 27 smaller provinces. See List of settlements in Bulgaria for a list of all large locations.
Bulgaria is classified as an development country by the EU.
- Number of people living in Bulgaria: 7,351,234
- Female: 3,770,897 (51%)
- Male: 3,580,337 (49%)
- Those living in cities: 5,357,633 (73%)
- Those living in villages: 1,993,601 (27%)
- Number of dwellings (houses, apartments, summer house/villa, any place where people can live): 3,898,688
- Number of households (people living together - families, roommates, etc.): 2,826,740
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Penin, Rumen (2007). Природна география на България [Natural Geography of Bulgaria] (in Bulgarian). Bulvest 2000. p. 18. ISBN 978-954-18-0546-6.
- "Field listing: Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 October 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Population on 1 January". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Eurostat. Retrieved 14 January 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- "Human Development Report 2019". United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Rumen Radev". President of the Republic of Bulgaria. 22 January 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "CIA - The World Factbook - Bulgaria". Retrieved 2013-03-17. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "What is the average salary in Bulgaria". Answers.com.
- "Regeringens webbplats om mänskliga rättigheter" (PDF). www.manskligarattigheter.se.[permanent dead link]
- Kapital Quarterly
- http://www.nsi.bg/EPDOCS/Census2011final.pdf Census 2011 PDF
- http://censusresults.nsi.bg/Welcome.aspx Census 2011
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2012-02-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Новини от България и света, актуална информация 24 часа в денонощието". News.bg.