|Distribution of the cane toad, native distribution in blue, introduced in red|
Cane toads are terrestrial amphibians. This means that they only go back to the water to lay their eggs. They live in Central America and South America. However, they have been introduced to Australia, Oceania in general and the Caribbean.
In Australia[change | change source]
Nearly 80 years ago, a group of 102 cane toads were sent to Queensland to catch sugar beetles. Cane-growers were concerned about the damage insect larvae were doing to crops. The insects were native to Australia, but bad for the valuable cane crops.
The first cane toads were brought into Queensland by Reginald Mungomery, an entomologist. Before 1935, Australia had no toads. The entire continent, full of various frog species, had no toads. Tough and always moving into new areas, the cane toads started reproducing and expanding outwards every wet season. This "invasion front" moved around 10 km a year until the 1960s, when it began speeding up significantly.
Their predators[change | change source]
In their native habitat, a number of fish and reptiles prey on the tadpoles and the adult toad. These include the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), the banded cat-eyed snake (Leptodeira annulata), eels (family Anguillidae), various species of killifish, the black rat (Rattus rattus) and the Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator).
They have far fewer predators in Australia but, as time passes, some of the local animals will adapt their behaviour. Already some Australian crows have learned strategies allowing them to feed on cane toads, such as using their beak to flip toads onto their back. Opossums of the Didelphis genus likely can eat cane toads with impunity. Meat ants are unaffected by the cane toads' toxins, and therefore are able to kill them. The cane toad's normal response to attack is to stand still and let its toxin kill the attacker, which allows the ants to attack and eat the toad.
Ibis flip the toads about, throwing them in the air. After this they either wipe the toads in the wet grass, or they go down to a water source and rinse the toads out.
In popular culture[change | change source]
A cane toad is one of the non-human characters in Dave Barry's 1999 novel Big Trouble and in the 2002 movie based on the novel.
References[change | change source]
- Solis, Frank; Ibáñez, Roberto; Hammerson, Geoffrey; Hedges, Blair; Diesmos, Arvin; Matsui, Masafumi; Hero, Jean-Marc; Richards, Stephen; Coloma, Luis A.; Ron, Santiago; La Marca, Enrique; Hardy, Jerry; Powell, Robert; Bolaños, Federico; Chaves, Gerardo & Ponce, Paulino (2009). "Rhinella marina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T41065A10382424. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
- "Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.5". Frost, Darrel R. American Museum of Natural History, New York. 31 January 2011. Retrieved June 4, 2012.
- Pramuk, Jennifer B.; Robertson, Tasia; Sites, Jack W.; Noonan, Brice P. (2007). "Around the world in 10 million years: biogeography of the nearly cosmopolitan true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)". Global Ecology and Biogeography: 070817112457001––. doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2007.00348.x.
- Crossland, Alford & Shine 2009, p. 626 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCrosslandAlfordShine2009 (help)
- Tyler, Michael J. 1989. Australian Frogs. Penguin Books, p138-139. ISBN 0-670-90123-7
- Bolton, Katrina (2007-09-15). "Toads fall victim to crows in NT – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
- "Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)". Ozanimals.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
- "American possums the solution to cane toads in Australia? - Science Show - 20 March 2010". Abc.net.au. 19 March 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-03-22. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Sweeney, Claire (31 March 2009). "Killer ants are weapons of mass toad destruction". London: Times Online. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- "Cane Toads". Queensland Museum. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
Other websites[change | change source]
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