|Part of the portuguese transition to democracy and the Cold War|
|Date||25 April 1974|
|Resulted in||AF Movement victory|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
The Carnation Revolution, also known as the 25 April, was a coup on 25 April 1974 in Lisbon that overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime, producing fundamental social, economic, territorial, demographic and political changes through 1974 to 1975. Carnation Revolution resulted in the Portuguese transition to democracy and the end of the Portuguese Colonial War.
The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement, composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it soon joined forces with an popular civil resistance movements. Negotiations with African independence movements began, and by the end of 1974, Portuguese troops were withdrawn from Portuguese Guinea, which became a UN member state. This was followed by the independence of many Portuguese colonies. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories (mostly from Angola and Mozambique), creating over a million Portuguese refugees.
The carnation revolution got its name from the fact that almost no shots were fired and from restaurant worker Celeste Caeiro offering carnations to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship, with other demonstrators following suit and carnations placed in the muzzles of guns and on the soldiers' uniforms. In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday (Portuguese: Dia da Liberdade, Freedom Day) that commemorates the revolution.
- "1974: Rebels seize control of Portugal", On This Day, 25 April, BBC, 25 April 1974, retrieved 2 January 2010
- "Flight from Angola". The Economist. 16 August 1975.
- "Dismantling the Portuguese Empire". Time. 7 July 1975.
- Association, Peter Booker, Algarve History. "Why April 25th is a holiday – the Carnation Revolution and the events of 1974". Retrieved 29 December 2017.