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Chandrayaan-2 lander and orbiter integrated module.jpg
Chandrayaan-2 composite
Mission typeLunar orbiter, lander, rover
OperatorIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
COSPAR ID2019-042A
SATCAT no.44441
Mission durationOrbiter: > 1 year
Vikram lander ≤ 14 days[1]
Pragyan rover: ≤ 14 days[1]
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Launch massCombined (wet): 3,850 kg (8,490 lb)[2][3][4]
Combined (dry): 1,308 kg (2,884 lb)[5]
Orbiter (wet): 2,379 kg (5,245 lb)[3][4]
Orbiter (dry): 682 kg (1,504 lb)[5]
Vikram lander (wet): 1,471 kg (3,243 lb)[3][4]
Vikram lander (dry): 626 kg (1,380 lb)[5]
Pragyan rover: 27 kg (60 lb)[3][4]
PowerOrbiter: 1 kW (1.3 hp)[6]

Vikram lander: 650 W (0.87 hp)

Pragyan rover: 50 W (0.067 hp)
Start of mission
Launch date22 July 2019, 14:43:12 IST (09:13:12 UTC)[7]
RocketGSLV Mk III[8][9]
Launch siteSatish Dhawan Space Centre Second Launch Pad
ContractorIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Moon orbiter
Orbital insertion20 August 2019, 09:02 IST (03:32 UTC) [10][11]
Orbit parameters
Periapsis100 km (62 mi)[12]
Apoapsis100 km (62 mi)[12]
Inclination90° (polar orbit)
Moon lander
Spacecraft componentrover
Landing date(Planned)
7 September 2019, 01:55 IST
(6 September 2019, 20:25 UTC) [11][13]

Chandrayaan-2, meaning Lunar Craft or Moon Craft, ( audio speaker iconpronunciation ) is India's second moon mission after Chandrayaan-1.[14] Made by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO),[15][16] the mission was launched from the second launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 July 2019 at 2:43 PM IST (09:13 UTC) to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III).[8][9][17] A proper landing on the lunar south pole would make India the 4th country to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, after the space agencies of the USA, USSR, and China.[18] The mission landing was expected on 7 September 2019 at 01:55 AM IST (6 September 2019, 20:25 UTC) [11][13] but crashed when it lost communication at a 2100 metre altitude.

History[change | change source]

On 12 November 2007, the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and ISRO agreed to work together on the Chandrayaan-2 project.[19] ISRO would be in charge of the orbiter and rover, while Roscosmos was to build the lander.[20] The design of the spacecraft was completed in August 2009, with scientists of both countries conducting a joint review.[21][22]

Although ISRO finalised the payload for Chandrayaan-2 on schedule, the mission was moved to 2016 because Russia was unable to build the lander on time.[23][24] When Russia decided it would not be able to build a lander by 2015, India decided to develop the lunar mission on its own.[25][26][27]

The spacecraft's launch had been scheduled for March 2018, but was delayed.[28][29] Two of the lander's legs got minor damage during one of the tests in February 2019, making the launch date even later.[30]

Goals[change | change source]

The main goals of Chandrayaan-2 are to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface and operate a robotic rover on the surface. Studies of lunar topography,mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere, and signatures of hydroxyl and water ice are the scientific goals.[31] The orbiter will survey the lunar surface and help to prepare 3D maps of it. The onboard radar will also survey the surface while studying the water ice in the lunar south pole and thickness of the Lunar soil on the surface.[32]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Nair, Avinash (31 May 2015). "ISRO to deliver "eyes and ears" of Chandrayaan-2 by 2015-end". The Indian Express. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  2. "Launch Kit of GSLV Mk III M1 Chandrayaan-2" (PDF). ISRO. 19 July 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Chandrayaan-2 to Be Launched in January 2019, Says ISRO Chief". Gadgets360. NDTV. Press Trust of India. 29 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "ISRO to send first Indian into Space by 2022 as announced by PM, says Dr Jitendra Singh" (Press release). Department of Space. 28 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Chandrayaan-2: All you need to know about India's 2nd Moon mission". 22 July 2019. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  6. "Chandrayaan-2 – Home". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  7. "Chandrayan-2 Launch Rescheduled on 22nd July, 2019, AT 14:43 HRS". Indian Space Research Organisation. July 18, 2019. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Singh, Surendra (5 August 2018). "Chandrayaan-2 launch put off: India, Israel in lunar race for 4th position". The Times of India. Times News Network. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Shenoy, Jaideep (28 February 2016). "ISRO chief signals India's readiness for Chandrayaan II mission". The Times of India. Times News Network. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  10. Ratcliffe, Rebecca (22 July 2019). "India's Chandrayaan-2 moon mission lifts off a week after aborted launch". Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "GSLV-Mk III – M1 / Chandrayaan-2 Mission". Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Kiran Kumar, Aluru Seelin (August 2015). Chandrayaan-2 – India's Second Moon Mission. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "ISRO aims for Chandrayaan-2 landing at 1.55 AM on September 07, says Dr K. Sivan". Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  14. "ISRO begins flight integration activity for Chandrayaan-2, as scientists tests lander and rover". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 25 October 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  15. "Chandrayaan-2 nearly ready for July launch".
  16. d. s, Madhumathi (9 June 2019). "ISRO gears up for Chandrayaan-2 mission". The Hindu.
  17. Chandrayaan-2 Launch Mission: Bahubali rocket set to take-off at 2:43 pm on Monday - SCIENCE News
  18. "India Plans to Launch Moon Mission in July". 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  19. Chand, Manish (12 November 2007). "India, Russia to expand n-cooperation, defer Kudankulam deal". Nerve. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  20. Sunderarajan, P. (19 September 2008). "Cabinet clears Chandrayaan-2". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
  21. "ISRO completes Chandrayaan-2 design". 17 August 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  22. "India and Russia complete design of new lunar probe". Sputnik News. RIA Novosti. 17 August 2009. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  23. Laxman, Srinivas (6 February 2012). "India's Chandrayaan-2 Moon Mission Likely Delayed After Russian Probe Failure". Asian Scientist. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  24. "India's next moon mission depends on Russia: ISRO chief". NDTV. Indo-Asian News Service. 9 September 2012.
  25. Ramachandran, R. (22 January 2013). "Chandrayaan-2: India to go it alone". The Hindu.
  26. "Chandrayaan-2 would be a lone mission by India without Russian tie-up". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 14 August 2013.
  27. "Chandrayaan-2". Retrieved 2019-06-13.
  28. Clark, Stephen (15 August 2018). "Launch Schedule". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018.
  29. "Chandrayaan-2 launch postponed to October: ISRO chief". The Economic Times. Press Trust of India. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  30. "India's Moon Lander Damaged During Test, Chandrayaan 2 Launch Put on Hold". The Wire. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
  31. "Chandrayaan 2". NSSDCA Master Catalog. NASA. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  32. Banerji, Abigail (13 July 2019). "Chandrayaan 2: Everything you need to know about the orbiter's mission and design". Tech2. Retrieved 14 July 2019.