Close front unrounded vowel

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Close front unrounded vowel
i
IPA number301
Encoding
Entity (decimal)i
Unicode (hex)U+0069
X-SAMPAi
Kirshenbaumi
Sound

 

The close front unrounded vowel(also called high front unrounded vowel), is a type of vowel. It is an i in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It sounds like the English word meet. It is also called a long-e in American English.[1] In English this sound has more length then it should and is not usually pronounced as a pure vowel(it is a diphthong).[2] A pure [i] sound can be heard in languages such as French with words like chic.

In languages[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[3] dief [dif] 'thief' See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard[4] دين/diin [d̪iːn] 'religion' See Arabic phonology
Catalan[5] sic [ˈsik] 'sic' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin[6][7] / qī audio speaker icon[tɕʰi˥] 'seven' See Standard Chinese phonology
Chuvash çип [ɕ̬ip] 'thread'
Czech[8][9] bílý audio speaker icon[ˈbiːliː] 'white' See Czech phonology
Dutch[10][11] biet audio speaker icon[bit] 'beet' See Dutch phonology
English[12] All dialects free audio speaker icon[fɹiː] 'free' In certain dialects, it can be pronunced as a diphthong. See English phonology
Australian[13] bit [bit] 'bit' Also described as near-close front [ɪ̟].[14] See Australian English phonology
French[15][16] fini [fini] 'finished' See French phonology
German[17][18] Ziel audio speaker icon[t͡siːl] 'goal' See Standard German phonology
Greek Modern Standard[19][20] κήπος / kípos [ˈc̠ipo̞s̠] 'garden' See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[21] ív [iːv] 'arch' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[22] bile [ˈbiːle̞] 'rage' See Italian phonology
Japanese[23] /gin audio speaker icon[ɡʲiɴ] 'silver' See Japanese phonology
Khmer លទ្ធិ / lôtthĭ [lattʰiʔ] 'doctrine' See Khmer phonology
Korean[24] 아이 / ai [ɐi] 'child' See Korean phonology
Kurdish[25][26] Kurmanji (Northern) şîr [ʃiːɾ] 'milk' See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central) شیر/šîr
Palewani (Southern)
Lithuanian vyras [viːrɐs̪] 'man' See Lithuanian orthography
Malay Malaysian Malay ikut [i.kʊt] 'to follow' See Malay phonology
Polish[27] miś audio speaker icon[ˈmʲiɕ] 'teddy bear' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[28] fino audio speaker icon[ˈfinu]  'thin' Also occurs as an unstressed allophone of other vowels. May be represented by ⟨y⟩. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[29] insulă [ˈin̪s̪ulə] 'island' See Romanian phonology
Rungus[30] rikot [ˈri.kot] 'to come'
Russian[31] лист/list audio speaker icon[lʲis̪t̪] 'leaf' Will only be used after palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[32] vile [ʋîle̞] 'hayfork' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[33] tipo [ˈt̪ipo̞] 'type' Can be written by ⟨y⟩. See Spanish phonology
Sotho[34] ho bitsa [huˌbit͡sʼɑ̈] 'to call' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[34] See Sotho phonology
Swedish Central Standard[35][36] bli [bliː] 'to stay' See Swedish phonology
Thai[37] กริช/krit [krìt] 'dagger'
Turkish[38][39] ip [ip] 'rope' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[40] місто/misto ['misto] 'city, town' See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh es i [eːs iː] 'I went' See Welsh phonology
Yoruba[41] síbí [síbí] 'spoon'

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Maddox, Maeve. "DailyWritingTips: The Six Spellings of "Long E"". www.dailywritingtips.com. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
  2. Labov, William; Sharon, Ash; Boberg, Charles (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter. chpt. 17. ISBN 978-3-11-016746-7.
  3. Donaldson (1993), p. 2.
  4. Thelwall (1990), p. 38.
  5. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  6. Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  7. Duanmu (2007), pp. 35–36.
  8. Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  9. Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 228.
  10. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  11. Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  12. Roach (2004), p. 240.
  13. Cox & Palethorpe (2007), p. 344.
  14. Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 65.
  15. Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  16. Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  17. Hall (2003), pp. 78, 107.
  18. Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  19. Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  20. Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  21. Szende (1994), p. 92.
  22. Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  23. Okada (1999), p. 117.
  24. Lee (1999), p. 121.
  25. Thackston (2006a), p. 1.
  26. Khan & Lescot (1970), pp. 8–16.
  27. Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  28. Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 92.
  29. Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  30. Forschner, T. A. (December 1994). Outline of A Momogun Grammar (Rungus Dialect) (PDF). Kudat. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2020.
  31. Jones & Ward (1969), p. 30.
  32. Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  33. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  35. Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  36. Riad (2014), p. 21.
  37. Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 24.
  38. Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  39. Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  40. Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  41. Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.

References[change | change source]