The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger and Anna-Greta Crafoord. It is administered by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
The prize is for "international basic research in the disciplines Astronomy, Mathematics, Geosciences, and Biosciences, with particular emphasis on ecology, and rheumatoid arthritis" (the disease from which Holger severely suffered in his last years). According to the Academy, "these disciplines are chosen so as to complement those for which the Nobel Prizes are awarded."
Only one award is given each year, according to a rotating scheme – astronomy and mathematics; then geosciences; then biosciences. A Crafoord Prize is only awarded for arthritis when a committee decides that substantial progress in the field has been made. On Crafoord Day in April, the prize is presented by the King of Sweden, who also presents the Nobel Prize Awards at the ceremony in December. The prize is to fund further research by the prize winner. In 2012 it is US$600,000.
Winners[change | change source]
|1982||Mathematics||Vladimir Arnold||Soviet Union||Theory of non-linear differential equations|
|Louis Nirenberg||United States[A]|
|1983||Geosciences||Edward Lorenz||United States||Geophysical hydrodynamics|
|—||Henry Stommel||United States|
|1984||Biosciences||Daniel Janzen||United States||Co-evolution|
|1985||Astronomy||Lyman Spitzer||United States||Studies of the interstellar medium|
|1986||Geosciences||—||Claude Allègre||France||Isotope geochemical relations|
|—||Gerald J. Wasserburg||United States|
|1987||Biosciences||—||Eugene P. Odum||United States||Ecosystem ecology|
|Howard T. Odum||United States|
|1988||Mathematics||Pierre Deligne|| Belgium
|1989||Geosciences||James Van Allen||United States||Exploration of space, the discovery the Van Allen belts|
|1990||Biosciences||Paul R. Ehrlich||United States||Dynamics and genetics of fragmented populations|
|E.O. Wilson||United States||Theory of island biogeography|
|1991||Astronomy||Allan Rex Sandage||United States||Study of galaxies|
|1992||Geosciences||—||Adolf Seilacher||Germany||Research into evolution of life|
|1993||Biosciences||W.D. Hamilton||United Kingdom||Theories of kin selection and genetic relationship|
|Seymour Benzer||United States||Genetical and neurophysiological studies of fruit flies|
|1994||Mathematics||—||Simon Donaldson||United Kingdom||Four-dimensional geometry|
|Shing-Tung Yau||United States[C]||Non-linear techniques in differential geometry|
|1995||Geosciences||—||Willi Dansgaard||Denmark||Development of isotope geological analysis methods|
|Nicholas Shackleton||United Kingdom|
|1996||Biosciences||Robert M. May||Australia||Ecological research|
|1997||Astronomy||Fred Hoyle||United Kingdom||Study of nuclear processes in stars, stellar evolution|
|—||Edwin Salpeter||United States|
|1998||Geosciences||—||Don L. Anderson||United States||Study of the structures and processes in the interior of the Earth|
|—||Adam M. Dziewonski||United States[D]|
|1999||Biosciences||Ernst Mayr||United States||Developing the concept of evolutionary biology|
|—||John Maynard Smith||United Kingdom|
|George C. Williams||United States|
|2000||Polyarthritis||—||Marc Feldmann||United Kingdom||Definition of TNF-alpha|
|—||Ravinder N. Maini||United Kingdom|
|2001||Mathematics||Alain Connes||France||Theory of operator algebras, founder of the non-commutative geometry|
|2002||Geosciences||—||Dan P. McKenzie||United Kingdom||Dynamics of the lithosphere|
|2003||Biosciences||—||Carl Woese||United States||Third domain of life|
|2004||Polyarthritis||—||Eugene C. Butcher||United States||Study of molecular mechanisms concerning white blood cells|
|—||Timothy A. Springer||United States|
|2005||Astronomy||—||James E. Gunn||United States||Understanding the large-scale structure of the Universe|
|—||James Peebles||United States|
|Martin Rees||United Kingdom|
|2006||Geosciences||—||Wallace S. Broecker||United States||Research into the global carbon cycle|
|2007||Biosciences||—||Robert Trivers||United States||Analysis of social evolution|
|2008||Astronomy||Rashid Alievich Sunyaev||Russia||Contributions to high-energy astrophysics and cosmology|
|Mathematics||Maxim Kontsevich||Russia[E]||Contributions to mathematics from modern theoretical physics|
|Edward Witten||United States|
|2009||Polyarthritis||Charles Dinarello||United States||Isolation of interleukins, understanding their role in the onset of inflammatory diseases|
|2010||Geosciences||Walter Munk||United States||“for his pioneering and fundamental contributions to our understanding of ocean circulation, tides and waves, and their role in the Earth’s dynamics”.|
|2011||Biosciences||Ilkka Hanski||Finland||“for his pioneering studies on how spatial variation affects the dynamics of animal and plant populations”.|
|2012||Astronomy||—||Reinhard Genzel||Germany||"for their observations of the stars orbiting the galactic centre, indicating the presence of a supermassive black hole".|
|—||Andrea M. Ghez||United States|
|Mathematics||—||Jean Bourgain||Belgium||“for their brilliant and groundbreaking work in harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, ergodic theory, number theory, combinatorics, functional analysis and theoretical computer science".|
|Terence Tao|| Australia|
|2013||Polyarthritis||Peter K. Gregersen||United States||"for their discoveries concerning the role of different genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis".|||
|Robert J. Winchester||United States|
|2014||Geosciences||—||Peter Molnar||United States||"for his ground-breaking contribution to the understanding of global tectonics, in particular the deformation of continents and the structure and evolution of mountain ranges, as well as the impact of tectonic processes on ocean-atmosphere circulation and climate".|||
|2015||Biosciences||—||Richard Lewontin||United States||"for their pioneering analyses and fundamental contributions to the understanding of genetic polymorphism".|||
|2016||Astronomy||Roy Kerr||New Zealand||"for fundamental work concerning rotating black holes and their astrophysical consequences"|||
|Roger Blandford||United States|
|Mathematics||Yakov Eliashberg||United States[F]||"for the development of contact and symplectic topology and groundbreaking discoveries of rigidity and flexibility phenomena"|
|2017||Polyarthritis||Shimon Sakaguchi||Japan||"for their discoveries relating to regulatory T cells, which counteract harmful immune reactions in arthritis and other autoimmune diseases."|||
|—||Fred Ramsdell||United States|
|Alexander Rudensky||United States[G]|
|2018||Geosciences||—||Syukuro Manabe||Japan / United States||"for fundamental contributions to understanding the role of atmospheric trace gases in Earth’s climate system."|||
|—||Susan Solomon||United States|
|2019||Biosciences||—||Sallie W. Chisholm||United States||"for the discovery and pioneering studies of the most abundant photosynthesising organism on Earth, Prochlorococcus".|||
|2020||Astronomy||Eugene N. Parker||United States||"for pioneering and fundamental studies of the solar wind and magnetic fields from stellar to galactic scales".|||
|Mathematics||Enrico Bombieri||Italy / United States||"for outstanding and influential contributions in all the major areas of mathematics, particularly number theory, analysis and algebraic geometry".|
References[change | change source]
- "About the prize". The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- "King of Sweden awards Crafoord Prize to IC researchers". Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine. 4 October 2000. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
- "The Crafoord Prize 1982–2009" (PDF). The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- "The Crafoord Prize 1982–2014" (PDF). The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- Wollheim, Frank A. (22 August 2013). "The Crafoord Prize in polyarthritis 2013" (PDF). Rheumatology. 53 (4): 581–582. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ket285. PMID 23970543. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "Peter Molnar wins Crafoord Prize in Geosciences". Royal Astronomical Society. 17 January 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Lane, Isabel (19 January 2015). "Crafoord Prize in Biosciences goes to genetic polymorphism research". Biofuels Digest. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "NZ astrophysicist awarded $1m prize". Sky News Australia. 15 January 2016. Archived from the original on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "Yakov Eliashberg awarded the Crafoord Prize in Mathematics". Stanford University. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
- Crafoord Prize 2017 Archived 18 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- Crafoord Prize 2018
- Crafoord Prize 2019
- Crafoord Prize 2020