List of current members of the United States Senate

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The United States Senate party membership by state. States with two Democratic U.S. Senators are in blue, states with two Republican U.S. Senators are in red, and those with one of each are in purple. States with an independent U.S. Senator are marked with green stripes on a blue or red background, depending on the party of the other U.S. Senator.

The United States Senate is made up of 100 members, two from each of the 50 states. Below is a list of the current U.S. Senators, sitting in the 116th United States Congress.

Party affiliation[change | change source]

Affiliation Members
  Republican Party 53
  Democratic Party 45
  Independent 2[a]
Total 100

Leadership[change | change source]

Office Party Officer State Since
President of the Senate[b] Republican Mike Pence official Vice Presidential portrait (cropped).jpg Mike Pence Indiana[c] January 20, 2017
President pro tempore Republican Chuck Grassley official photo 2017.jpg Chuck Grassley Iowa January 3, 2019

Senators[change | change source]

Legend

  Democratic   Republican   Independent

State Portrait Name Born Occupation(s) Previous

office(s)

Assumed office Seat up
Alabama Richard Shelby, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Richard Shelby (1934-05-06) May 6, 1934 (age 85) Lawyer U.S. House
Alabama Senate
January 3, 1987 2022
Senator Doug Jones official photo (cropped) 2.jpg Doug Jones[d] (1954-05-04) May 4, 1954 (age 65) Senate staffer;
Lawyer
U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Alabama January 3, 2018 2020
Alaska Lisa Murkowski official photo (cropped).jpg Lisa Murkowski (1957-05-22) May 22, 1957 (age 62) Lawyer Alaska House of Representatives December 20, 2002 2022
Senator Dan Sullivan official (cropped).jpg Dan Sullivan (1964-11-13) November 13, 1964 (age 54) U.S. Marine officer;
Lawyer
Alaska Attorney General
U.S. Assistant Secretary of State
January 3, 2015 2020
Arizona Kyrsten Sinema by Gage Skidmore (cropped).jpg Kyrsten Sinema (1976-07-12) July 12, 1976 (age 43) Social Worker U.S. House January 3, 2019 2024
Martha McSally official portrait cropped 115th congress.jpg Martha McSally[e] (1966-03-22) March 22, 1966 (age 53) U.S. Air Force officer U.S. House January 3, 2019 2020 (special), 2022 (regular)
Arkansas John Boozman, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg John Boozman (1950-12-10) December 10, 1950 (age 68) Optometrist U.S. House
Rogers Public Schools Board
January 3, 2011 2022
Tom Cotton official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Tom Cotton (1977-05-13) May 13, 1977 (age 42) Lawyer
United States Army officer
U.S. House January 3, 2015 2020
California Dianne Feinstein, official Senate photo 2 (cropped).jpg Dianne Feinstein (1933-06-22) June 22, 1933 (age 86) Non-profit organization fellow San Francisco Mayor
San Francisco Board of Supervisors
Member, California Women's Parole Board.
November 10, 1992 2024
Kamala Harris official photo (cropped).jpg Kamala Harris (1964-10-20) October 20, 1964 (age 54) Lawyer California Attorney General
San Francisco District Attorney
January 3, 2017 2022
Colorado Michael Bennet Official Photo (cropped).jpg Michael Bennet (1964-11-28) November 28, 1964 (age 54) Public School Administrator Denver Public Schools Superintendent January 22, 2009 2022
Cory Gardner official Senate portrait (cropped).jpeg Cory Gardner (1974-08-22) August 22, 1974 (age 45) Lawyer;
Businessperson
U.S. House
Colorado House
January 3, 2015 2020
Connecticut Richard Blumenthal Official Portrait (cropped).jpg Richard Blumenthal (1946-02-13) February 13, 1946 (age 73) Marine Corps Reserve Sergeant;
Senate staffer;
Lawyer
Connecticut Attorney General
Connecticut Senate
Connecticut House
United States Attorney for the District of Connecticut
January 3, 2011 2022
Chris Murphy, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Chris Murphy (1973-08-03) August 3, 1973 (age 46) Lawyer;
Political campaign manager
U.S. House
Connecticut House
Connecticut Senate
January 3, 2013 2024
Delaware Tom Carper, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Tom Carper (1947-01-23) January 23, 1947 (age 72) U.S. Navy officer;
Delaware Office of Economic Development
Delaware Governor
U.S. House
Delaware Treasurer
January 3, 2001 2024
Chris Coons, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Chris Coons (1963-09-09) September 9, 1963 (age 56) Nonprofit executive;
Lawyer
New Castle County executive November 15, 2010 2020
Florida Senator Rubio official portrait (cropped).jpg Marco Rubio (1971-05-28) May 28, 1971 (age 48) Lawyer Florida House Speaker
West Miami City Commission
January 3, 2011 2022
Rick Scott (cropped).jpg Rick Scott (1952-12-01) December 1, 1952 (age 66) Lawyer;
Columbia/HCA CEO;
Venture capitalist
Governor of Florida January 8, 2019 2024
Georgia Johnny Isakson official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Johnny Isakson (1944-12-28) December 28, 1944 (age 74) Real estate broker U.S. House
Georgia House
Georgia State Senate
January 3, 2005 2022
David Perdue, Official Portrait, 114th Congress (cropped).jpg David Perdue (1949-12-10) December 10, 1949 (age 69) Corporate executive None January 3, 2015 2020
Hawaii Brian Schatz, official portrait, 113th Congress 2 (cropped).jpg Brian Schatz (1972-10-20) October 20, 1972 (age 46) Nonprofit executive Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii
Hawaii House
December 26, 2012 2022
Mazie Hirono, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Mazie Hirono (1947-11-03) November 3, 1947 (age 71) Lawyer U.S. House
Hawaii House
Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii
January 3, 2013 2024
Idaho Mike Crapo Official Photo 110th Congress (cropped).jpg Mike Crapo (1951-05-20) May 20, 1951 (age 68) Lawyer U.S. House
Idaho Senate
January 3, 1999 2022
Jim Risch official portrait (cropped).jpg Jim Risch (1943-05-03) May 3, 1943 (age 76) Professor;
Rancher;
nonprofit executive
Governor of Idaho
Lieutenant Governor of Idaho
Idaho Senate President pro tempore
January 3, 2009 2020
Illinois Richard Durbin official photo (cropped).jpg Dick Durbin (1944-11-21) November 21, 1944 (age 74) Lawyer;
Professor
U.S. House January 3, 1997 2020
Tammy Duckworth 115th official portrait (cropped).jpg Tammy Duckworth (1968-03-12) March 12, 1968 (age 51) National Guard officer
Staff supervisor, Rotary International
U.S. House
U.S. Assistant Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Illinois Director of Veterans Affairs
January 3, 2017 2022
Indiana Senator Todd Young official portrait (cropped).jpg Todd Young (1972-08-24) August 24, 1972 (age 47) Marine Corps rifleman;
Naval intelligence officer;
Professor;
Consultant
U.S. House January 3, 2017 2022
Mike Braun in Greenfield, Indiana (cropped).jpg Mike Braun (1954-03-24) March 24, 1954 (age 65) Businessman Indiana House January 3, 2019 2024
Iowa Chuck Grassley official photo 2017.jpg Chuck Grassley (1933-09-17) September 17, 1933 (age 86) Farmer;
College professor
U.S. House
Iowa House
January 3, 1981 2022
Joni Ernst official photo.jpg Joni Ernst (1970-07-01) July 1, 1970 (age 49) Farmer;
National Guard officer
Iowa Senate January 3, 2015 2020
Kansas Pat Roberts official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Pat Roberts (1936-04-20) April 20, 1936 (age 83) United States Marine Corps officer;
Journalist;
U.S. Senate staff member;
U.S. House staff member
U.S. House January 3, 1997 2020
Jerry Moran, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Jerry Moran (1954-05-29) May 29, 1954 (age 65) Banker;
Lawyer
U.S. House
Kansas Senate
January 3, 2011 2022
Kentucky Mitch McConnell 2016 official photo (cropped).jpg Mitch McConnell (1942-02-20) February 20, 1942 (age 77) Lawyer;
U.S. Senate staff member
U.S. Deputy Assistant Attorney General
Judge-Executive of Jefferson County
January 3, 1985 2020
Rand Paul, official portrait, 112th Congress alternate (cropped).jpg Rand Paul (1963-01-07) January 7, 1963 (age 56) Ophthalmologist None January 3, 2011 2022
Louisiana Bill Cassidy official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Bill Cassidy (1957-09-28) September 28, 1957 (age 61) Physician U.S. House
Louisiana Senate
January 3, 2015 2020
John Neely Kennedy, official portrait, 115th Congress 2.jpg John Kennedy (1951-11-21) November 21, 1951 (age 67) Magazine editor;
Lawyer;
Professor
Louisiana Treasurer January 3, 2017 2022
Maine Susan Collins official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Susan Collins (1952-12-07) December 7, 1952 (age 66) House staffer;
Senate staffer;
Regional director, SBA;
Nonprofit executive
Deputy Treasurer, MA

Professional and Financial Regulation Commissioner, ME

January 3, 1997 2020
Angus King, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Angus King (1944-03-31) March 31, 1944 (age 75) Lawyer;
Senate staffer;
Business founder
Corporate executive;
Public television news program host
Maine Governor January 3, 2013 2024
Maryland Ben Cardin official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Ben Cardin (1943-10-05) October 5, 1943 (age 75) Lawyer U.S. House
Speaker of the Maryland House
January 3, 2007 2024
Chris Van Hollen official portrait 115th Congress (cropped).jpg Chris Van Hollen (1959-01-10) January 10, 1959 (age 60) U.S. Senate staff member;
Maryland Governor's legislative advisor;
Lawyer
U.S. House
Maryland General Assembly
January 3, 2017 2022
Massachusetts Elizabeth Warren, official portrait, 114th Congress (cropped).jpg Elizabeth Warren (1949-06-22) June 22, 1949 (age 70) Lawyer;
Professor;
Research associate;
Nonprofit executive
COP Chair
CFPB Special Advisor
January 3, 2013 2024
Edward Markey, official portrait, 114th Congress (cropped).jpg Ed Markey (1946-07-11) July 11, 1946 (age 73) Lawyer U.S. House
Massachusetts House
July 16, 2013 2020
Michigan Debbie Stabenow, official portrait 2 (cropped).jpg Debbie Stabenow (1950-04-29) April 29, 1950 (age 69) Social worker;
Leadership training consultant
U.S. House
Michigan House
Michigan Senate
January 3, 2001 2024
Gary Peters, official portrait, 114th Congress (cropped).jpg Gary Peters (1958-12-01) December 1, 1958 (age 60) Financial advisor;
Lecturer
U.S. House
Michigan Senate
January 3, 2015 2020
Minnesota Amy Klobuchar, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Amy Klobuchar (1960-05-25) May 25, 1960 (age 59) Lawyer Hennepin County Attorney January 3, 2007 2024
Senator Smith official photo (cropped).jpg Tina Smith[f] (1958-03-04) March 4, 1958 (age 61) Public relations consultant;
Nonprofit executive
Chief of staff to the Governor of Minnesota
Minnesota Lieutenant Governor January 3, 2018 2020
Mississippi U.S. Senator Roger F. Wicker Official Portrait, 2018 (cropped).jpg Roger Wicker (1951-07-05) July 5, 1951 (age 68) U.S. Air Force officer/Judge Advocate;
U.S. House staffer;
Lawyer
U.S. House
Mississippi Senate
December 31, 2007 2024
Cindy Hyde-Smith official photo (cropped).jpg Cindy Hyde-Smith[g] (1959-05-10) May 10, 1959 (age 60) Farmer Mississippi Commissioner of Agriculture and Commerce
Mississippi Senate
April 9, 2018 2020
Missouri Josh Hawley Primary Night (cropped 2).jpg Josh Hawley (1979-12-31) December 31, 1979 (age 39) Lawyer Missouri Attorney General January 3, 2019 2024
Roy Blunt, Official Portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Roy Blunt (1950-01-10) January 10, 1950 (age 69) University president U.S. House
Missouri Secretary of State
Greene County Clerk
January 3, 2011 2022
Montana JonTester (cropped).jpg Jon Tester (1956-08-21) August 21, 1956 (age 63) Music teacher;
Farmer
Montana Senate President
Big Sandy School Board
January 3, 2007 2024
Steve Daines official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Steve Daines (1962-08-20) August 20, 1962 (age 57) Businessperson U.S. House January 3, 2015 2020
Nebraska Deb Fischer, official portrait, 115th Congress (cropped).jpg Deb Fischer (1951-03-01) March 1, 1951 (age 68) Rancher Nebraska Legislature January 3, 2013 2024
Ben Sasse official photo (cropped).jpg Ben Sasse (1972-02-22) February 22, 1972 (age 47) Management consultant;
Nonprofit executive;
House staffer;
Professor;
University president
Asst Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (HHS) January 3, 2015 2020
Nevada Catherine Cortez Masto official portrait (cropped).jpg Catherine Cortez Masto (1964-03-29) March 29, 1964 (age 55) Lawyer Nevada Attorney General January 3, 2017 2022
Jacky Rosen official photo 115th congress (cropped).jpg Jacky Rosen (1957-08-02) August 2, 1957 (age 62) Computer programmer;
Software developer;
Designer;
Consultant
U.S. House January 3, 2019 2024
New Hampshire Jeanne Shaheen, official Senate photo portrait, 2009 (cropped).jpg Jeanne Shaheen (1947-01-28) January 28, 1947 (age 72) Teacher;
Entrepreneur
New Hampshire Governor
New Hampshire Senate
January 3, 2009 2020
Maggie Hassan, official portrait, 115th Congress (cropped).jpg Maggie Hassan (1958-02-27) February 27, 1958 (age 61) Lawyer New Hampshire Governor
New Hampshire Senate
January 3, 2017 2022
New Jersey Robert Menendez official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Bob Menendez (1954-01-01) January 1, 1954 (age 65) Lawyer U.S. House
New Jersey General Assembly
New Jersey Senate
January 18, 2006 2024
Cory Booker, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg Cory Booker (1969-04-27) April 27, 1969 (age 50) Lawyer Newark Mayor
Newark Municipal Council
October 31, 2013 2020
New Mexico Tom Udall official photo.jpg Tom Udall (1948-05-18) May 18, 1948 (age 71) Lawyer U.S. House
New Mexico Attorney General
Assistant U.S. Attorney
January 3, 2009 2020
Martin Heinrich, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Martin Heinrich (1971-10-17) October 17, 1971 (age 47) Nonprofit executive;
Consultant
U.S. House
Albuquerque City Council
January 3, 2013 2024
New York Chuck Schumer official photo (cropped).jpg Chuck Schumer (1950-11-23) November 23, 1950 (age 68) Lawyer U.S. House
New York Assembly
January 3, 1999 2022
Kirsten Gillibrand, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Kirsten Gillibrand (1966-12-09) December 9, 1966 (age 52) Lawyer U.S. House
U.S. HUD special counsel
January 26, 2009 2024
North Carolina Richard Burr official portrait (cropped).jpg Richard Burr (1955-11-30) November 30, 1955 (age 63) Sales manager;
Nonprofit executive
U.S. House January 3, 2005 2022
Thom Tillis official photo (cropped).jpg Thom Tillis (1960-08-30) August 30, 1960 (age 59) Business consultant North Carolina House Speaker January 3, 2015 2020
North Dakota Hoeven Official Portrait 2014 (cropped).JPG John Hoeven (1957-03-13) March 13, 1957 (age 62) Banker North Dakota Governor January 3, 2011 2022
Kevin Cramer official photo (cropped).jpg Kevin Cramer (1961-01-21) January 21, 1961 (age 58) State Tourism Director;
State Economic Development and Finance Director;
Former North Dakota Republican Party Chairman
U.S. House
North Dakota Public Service Commissioner
January 3, 2019 2024
Ohio Sherrod Brown official photo 2009 2.jpg Sherrod Brown (1952-11-09) November 9, 1952 (age 66) Teacher U.S. House
Ohio Secretary of State
Ohio House
January 3, 2007 2024
Rob Portman official portrait (cropped).jpg Rob Portman (1955-12-19) December 19, 1955 (age 63) Lawyer U.S. House
U.S. Trade Representative
OMB Director
January 3, 2011 2022
Oklahoma Jim Inhofe official portrait (cropped).jpg Jim Inhofe (1934-11-17) November 17, 1934 (age 84) Businessperson;
Developer;
Corporate executive
U.S. House
Tulsa Mayor
Oklahoma Senate
Oklahoma House
November 17, 1994 2020
James Lankford official portrait 115th congress (cropped).jpg James Lankford (1968-03-04) March 4, 1968 (age 51) Nonprofit program director U.S. House January 3, 2015 2022
Oregon Ron Wyden official photo (cropped).jpg Ron Wyden (1949-05-03) May 3, 1949 (age 70) Teacher;
Nonprofit executive
U.S. House February 6, 1996 2022
Jeff Merkley, 115th official photo (cropped).jpg Jeff Merkley (1956-10-24) October 24, 1956 (age 62) Nonprofit executive;
CBO analyst, Defense Department
Oregon House Speaker January 3, 2009 2020
Pennsylvania Bob Casey Jr. official photo (cropped).jpg Bob Casey, Jr. (1960-04-13) April 13, 1960 (age 59) Teacher;
Lawyer
Pennsylvania Treasurer
Pennsylvania Auditor
January 3, 2007 2024
Pat Toomey official photo (cropped).jpg Pat Toomey (1961-11-17) November 17, 1961 (age 57) Currency trader;
Restaurant owner
U.S. House January 3, 2011 2022
Rhode Island Senator Jack Reed official photo (cropped).jpg Jack Reed (1949-11-12) November 12, 1949 (age 69) Lawyer;
Army Reserve officer;
Army officer
U.S. House
Rhode Island Senate
January 3, 1997 2020
Sheldon Whitehouse 2010 (cropped).jpg Sheldon Whitehouse (1955-10-20) October 20, 1955 (age 63) Lawyer Rhode Island Attorney General
United States Attorney for Rhode Island
January 3, 2007 2024
South Carolina Lindsey Graham, official Senate photo portrait cropped.jpg Lindsey Graham (1955-07-09) July 9, 1955 (age 64) Lawyer;
Air Force Reserve officer
U.S. House
South Carolina House
January 3, 2003 2020
Tim Scott, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped 2).jpg Tim Scott (1965-09-19) September 19, 1965 (age 53) Insurance agent;
Financial adviser
U.S. House
South Carolina House
Charleston County Council
January 2, 2013 2022
South Dakota John Thune, official portrait, 111th Congress (cropped).jpg John Thune (1961-01-07) January 7, 1961 (age 58) Nonprofit executive;
State Railroad Director
U.S. House
South Dakota Republican Party Executive Director
January 3, 2005 2022
Mike Rounds official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Mike Rounds (1954-10-24) October 24, 1954 (age 64) Businessperson South Dakota Governor
South Dakota Senate
January 3, 2015 2020
Tennessee Lamar Alexander official photo (cropped).jpg Lamar Alexander (1940-07-03) July 3, 1940 (age 79) Senate staffer;
Lawyer;
Businessperson
Tennessee Governor
U.S. Secretary of Education
January 3, 2003 2020
Marsha blackburn congress (cropped).jpg Marsha Blackburn (1952-06-06) June 6, 1952 (age 67) Consultant;
Executive Director of the Tennessee Film, Entertainment, and Music Commission;
Former Williamson County Republican Party Chairwoman
U.S. House
Tennessee Senate
January 3, 2019 2024
Texas John Cornyn (cropped).jpg John Cornyn (1952-02-02) February 2, 1952 (age 67) Lawyer San Antonio District Judge
Texas Attorney General
Texas Supreme Court
(Associate Justice)
December 1, 2002 2020
Ted Cruz official 116th portrait (cropped).jpg Ted Cruz (1970-12-22) December 22, 1970 (age 48)
Lawyer

U.S. Assoc. Deputy AG
Texas Solicitor General
January 3, 2013 2024
Utah Mike Lee, official portrait (cropped).jpg Mike Lee (1971-06-04) June 4, 1971 (age 48) Lawyer;
Governor's General Counsel
Assistant U.S. Attorney January 3, 2011 2022
Mitt Romney by Gage Skidmore 7.jpg Mitt Romney (1947-03-12) March 12, 1947 (age 72) Businessman Massachusetts Governor January 3, 2019 2024
Vermont Patrick Leahy official photo (cropped).jpg Patrick Leahy (1940-03-31) March 31, 1940 (age 79) Lawyer Chittenden County State's Attorney January 3, 1975 2022
Bernie Sanders (cropped).jpg Bernie Sanders (1941-09-08) September 8, 1941 (age 78) Filmmaker;
Carpenter;
Writer;
Researcher
U.S. House
Burlington Mayor
January 3, 2007 2024
Virginia Mark Warner 113th Congress photo.jpg Mark Warner (1954-12-15) December 15, 1954 (age 64) Businessperson;
Venture capitalist
Virginia Governor
Virginia Democratic Party Chair
January 3, 2009 2020
Tim Kaine, official 113th Congress photo portrait (cropped).jpg Tim Kaine (1958-02-26) February 26, 1958 (age 61) Missionary;
Lawyer;
Teacher
Virginia Governor
Lt. Governor
Democratic National Committee Chair
Mayor of Richmond
January 3, 2013 2024
Washington Patty Murray, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Patty Murray (1950-10-11) October 11, 1950 (age 68) Teacher;
Lobbyist
Washington Senate
Shoreline School Board
January 3, 1993 2022
Maria Cantwell (cropped).jpg Maria Cantwell (1958-10-13) October 13, 1958 (age 60) Marketing Vice President U.S. House
Washington House
January 3, 2001 2024
West Virginia Senator Manchin (cropped).jpg Joe Manchin (1947-08-24) August 24, 1947 (age 72) Corporate executive West Virginia Governor
West Virginia Secretary of State
West Virginia House
West Virginia Senate
November 15, 2010 2024
Shelley Moore Capito official Senate photo (cropped 2).jpg Shelley Moore Capito (1953-11-26) November 26, 1953 (age 65) College administrator U.S. House
West Virginia House
January 3, 2015 2020
Wisconsin Ron Johnson, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Ron Johnson (1955-04-08) April 8, 1955 (age 64) Accountant;
Corporate executive
None January 3, 2011 2022
Tammy Baldwin, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Tammy Baldwin (1962-02-11) February 11, 1962 (age 57) Lawyer U.S. House
Wisconsin Assembly
January 3, 2013 2024
Wyoming Mike Enzi, official portrait, 111th Congress (cropped).jpg Mike Enzi (1944-02-01) February 1, 1944 (age 75) Nonprofit executive;
Accountant
CEO
Wyoming House
Wyoming Senate
January 3, 1997 2020
John Barrasso official portrait 112th Congress (cropped).jpg John Barrasso (1952-07-21) July 21, 1952 (age 67) Orthopedic surgeon;
Medical chief of staff;
Nonprofit executive
Wyoming Senate June 25, 2007 2024

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Senators Angus King of Maine and Bernie Sanders of Vermont caucus with the Democratic Party.
  2. The Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate
  3. As Vice President, Pence represents no state, but his home state is Indiana.
  4. Democrat Doug Jones was elected to succeed Luther Strange on December 12, 2017. Jones will be up for re-election in 2020.[1]
  5. Appointed to the seat after Jon Kyl's resignation following the death of John McCain.[2]
  6. Appointed to the seat after Al Franken's resignation.[3]
  7. Appointed to the seat after Thad Cochran's resignation.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Jones victorious in stunning Alabama Senate upset". AP News. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  2. Martin, Jonathan (18 December 2018). "Martha McSally Appointed to Arizona Senate Seat Once Held by John McCain" – via NYTimes.com.
  3. "Franken to make announcement Thursday as chorus grows for his resignation". ABC7 Chicago. 2017-12-06. Retrieved 2017-12-09.