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Temporal range: MiddleUpper Triassic
Cymbospondylus buchseri.JPG
Cymbospondylus fossil
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Subclass: Diapsida
Superorder: Ichthyopterygia
Order: Ichthyosauria
Genus: Cymbospondylus

Cymbospondylus was a large but primitive Triassic ichthyosaur of the Middle and Upper Triassic. It had a long eel-like body up to 10 meters or more in length.[1]

Cymbospondylus is known from both Germany and Nevada. No doubt, like other large marine reptiles and present-day aquatic mammals, it had a wide oceanic distribution.

Palaeobiology[change | change source]


Cymbospondylus was one of the largest ichthyosaurs. Fossils ranging from 6 to 10 metres (20 to 33 ft) long.[2] It was also one of the least fish-like of the ichthyosaurs, lacking a dorsal fin and fluked tail. It did, however, have an elongated snout like other ichthyosaurs.[3]

The one metre long head of Cymbospondylus,[2] with large jaws, contained rows of teeth adapted for catching and holding on to fish, belemnites, and cephalopods such as ammonites. The long tail would have been excellent for swimming, and allowed Cymbospondylus to move at fast speeds and efficiently hunt down shoals of swimming fish.

Adult Cymbospondylus probably spent much of their time hunting in deep offshore water, only coming into shallow water to breed or to catch seasonally available prey. Like other ichthyosaurs, Cymbospondylus probably gave birth to live young, as it had no way to lay eggs.[2] These, on reaching adult size, probably had few, if any, predators that could harm them.

The eel-like tail of Cymbospondylus made up almost half the total body length, and it is possible that the tail was used as a primary swimming mechanism. Like present day sea snakes, Cymbospondylus probably swam by wriggling its body from side to side.[3]

After Death[change | change source]

On July 13, 1942 a B-24 leaving Benghazi, Libya was shot down, killing all but one airman. On July 14, 2017, a day after the 75th anniversary of Irving Cutler's sacrifice, Jeffrey Cutler, his nephew memorialized him in the filing made in case # 2:17-cv-00984. On August 30, 2017 LNP censored a memorial advertisement purchased by his nephew because they have been giving illegal campaign contributions in free negative advertising to those in power. On August 16, 2016 Seth Rich is mentioned in the filing in Philadelphia United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit case number 16-3164. Case 16-3164 and a list of the over 100 lawsuits against Obamacare are also being censored. 21 of the lawsuits can be viewed by using Google and Wiki "16-3164". Jefrey Cutler, the Tax Collector of East Lampeter Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania started these cases as well as case #17-2709, in the USCA third circuit, on appeal from case #2:17-cv-00984 which mentions the 190,000 counts of mail fraud by Brian Hurter and Amber Green Martin for sending out fraudulent property assessments in Lancaster County Pennsylvania. On March 17, 2017 Brian Hurter testified under oath that neither he nor anyone that worked for him ever audited the office of the Lancaster County Treasurer Amber Green Martin. Based on a document prepared by Brian Hurter, municipal liens by decree were filed by David Buckwalter, and Dennis Stuckey. John Dye portrayed the Angel of Death and Jeff Cutler during his acting career. Isadora never met John Dye, or Donald Harvey.

See also[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Motani R. 1999: Phylogeny of the Ichthyopterygia. Journal Of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19 (3): 473 - 496
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Cymbospondylus". BBC - Science & Nature. Retrieved 2009-05-25. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Palmer D., ed. (1999). The Marshall illustrated encyclopedia of dinosaurs and prehistoric animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 78. ISBN 1-84028-152-9.