Darfur conflict

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
War in Darfur
Part of the Sudanese Civil Wars
Sudanese Internal Conflict.svg
Military situation in Sudan on 6 June 2016. (Darfur on the far left)

     Under control of the Sudanese Government and allies      Under control of the Sudan Revolutionary Front and allies      Under control of the Sudanese Awakening Revolutionary Council

For a more detailed map of the current military situation in Sudan, see here.
Date26 February 2003 – present
(17 years, 5 months, 2 weeks and 1 day)
Location
Status

Ongoing

Belligerents

SRF[a]

SARC (from 2014)
SLFA (from 2017)[1]

  • SLA-Unity
  • SLMJ
  • JEM (Jali)

Supported by:
 South Sudan[2]
 Chad (2005–2010)
 Eritrea (until 2008)[3]
Libya (until 2011)[4]

 Uganda (until 2015)[5]

 Sudan

Janjaweed
Supported by:

 China
 Iran (until 2016)
 Russia
 Belarus[6][7][8]
United Nations UNAMID (from 2007)
Commanders and leaders

Ahmed Diraige
Khalil Ibrahim 
Gibril Ibrahim
Abdul Wahid al Nur (SLA-AW)
Minni Minnawi (SLA-MM)

Musa Hilal (POW)[9] (SARC)

Sudan Abdel Fattah al-Burhan
Sudan Omar al-Bashir (until April 2019)[10]
Sudan Musa Hilal (until 2017)
Sudan Hamid Dawai
Sudan Ali Kushayb
Sudan Ahmed Haroun (until April 2019)[11][12]

Sudan Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo

United Nations Martin Ihoeghian Uhomoibhi[13]

United Nations Frank Mushyo Kamanzi[14]
Units involved

SLA

JEM

  • Gibril Ibrahim faction
  • Abdallah Bishir Jali faction[16]

Sudanese Armed Forces

No specific units
Strength

SRF: 60,000

SAF: 109,300[c]

Janjaweed: <25,000
UNAMID:
15,845 soldiers and 3,403 police officers[20]
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown 235 killed[21]

Total killed:
300,000 (UN estimate)
10,000 (Sudanese government estimate)[22]


Total displaced:

2,850,000–3,000,000[23] (UN estimate)
450,000 (Sudanese government estimate)

a Known as the National Redemption Front prior to 2011.
b Signed the Doha Darfur Peace Agreement in 2011.[24]

c Number does not represent the number of soldiers stationed in Darfur, but the total number of military personnel.[19][25]

The Darfur conflict is an ongoing military conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, the third largest country in Africa. It is a conflict along ethnic and tribal lines that began in 2003. Many people and the United States Government, consider it to be a genocide.[26][27] The United Nations currently does not see this as genocide.[28][29][30]

Those involved in the conflict[change | change source]

One side of the conflict is composed mainly of the Janjaweed, a militia group recruited from the Arab tribes who move from place to place herding camels. The Sudanese government tells the public that it does not support the Janjaweed. However, it has provided cash and assistance and has even participated in joint attacks.[31]

The other side of the conflict is made up of a number of rebel armies, including the Sudan Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement. These armies are recruited from Black ethnic groups who make a living farming the land.

How the conflict is dealt with[change | change source]

Villages destroyed in the Darfur region of Sudan, 2004

The African Union sent a 7,000-troop peacekeeping force to Sudan. However, this force was poorly funded and under-equipped. So the United Nations decided to send an additional 17,300-troop peacekeeping force to help them. Sudan was strongly against this decision and saw the UN forces as foreign invaders. The next day, the Sudanese military launched a major offensive in the region.

The Sudanese government may have suppressed information about the conflict. Some witnesses have been jailed, others may have been killed. This started in 2004. Also, some evidence, such as mass graves was tampered with, so that it became unusable. Some people say this was done by forces which are close to the Sudanese government.[32][33][34] In addition, by obstructing and arresting journalists, the Sudanese government has been able to obscure much of what has gone on.[35][36][37][38] The United States government has described it as genocide,.[27] The UN has declined to do so. In March 2007 the UN mission accused Sudan's government of "gross violations" in Darfur and called for urgent international action to protect civilians there.[39]

Effect of the conflict[change | change source]

There are different estimates of how many died in the conflict. According to Sudan's government, 9,000 people have been killed. On the other hand, many other people say that it could be from 200,000 to over 400,000. By October 2006, as many as 2.5 million people had to move because of the conflict.[40]

The United Nations says that about 200,000 people have been killed in the conflict so far.[41] Most non-governmental organizations use 200,000 to more than 400,000. The latter is a figure from the Coalition for International Justice that has since been cited by the UN. Sudan's government claims that more than 9,000 people have been killed, although this figure is seen as a gross underestimate.[42][43]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Three Darfur factions establish new rebel group". Sudan Tribune. 7 July 2017.
  2. "Al Bashir threatens to 'disarm Darfur rebels' in South Sudan". Radio Dabanga. 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  3. Afrol News – Eritrea, Chad accused of aiding Sudan rebels Archived 29 June 2012 at Archive.today 7 de septiembre de 2007
  4. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 2015-11-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Sudan adjusting to post-Gaddafi era
  5. "Uganda Signals Diplomatic Breakthrough With Sudan on Rebels". 13 February 2015. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018 – via www.Bloomberg.com.
  6. Тоp-10 обвинений Беларуси в сомнительных оружейных сделках
  7. Торговля оружием и будущее Белоруссии
  8. Завоюет ли Беларусь позиции на глобальных рынках оружия?
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Andrew McGregor (31 May 2019). "Continued Detention of Rebel POWs suggests Sudan's military rulers are not ready to settle with the Armed Opposition". Aberfoyle Inzernational Security. Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  10. "Sudan's Bashir Forced to Step Down". Reuters. 11 April 2019. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  11. "Sudan: Application for summonses for two war crimes suspects a small but significant step towards justice in Darfur | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. 27 February 2007. Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
  12. "Sudanese authorities arrest members of Bashir's party: Source". Reuters. 20 April 2019.
  13. : Le Secrétaire général et la Présidente de la Commission de l’Union africaine nomment M. Martin Ihoeghian Uhomoibhi, du Nigéria, Représentant spécial conjoint pour le Darfour et Chef de la MINUAD Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, UN, 27 October 2015
  14. : Le Secrétaire général et l’Union africaine nomment le général de corps d’armée Frank Mushyo Kamanzi, du Rwanda, Commandant de la force de la MINUAD Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, UN, 14 December 2015
  15. "Sudan, two rebel factions discuss ways to hold peace talks on Darfur conflict". Sudan Tribune. 5 June 2016. Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Three Darfur factions establish new rebel group". Sudan Tribune. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  17. "Series of explosions at weapons cache rock town in West Kordofan". Sudan Tribune. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  18. "Who are Sudan's Jem rebels?". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Military Balance 2007, 293.
  20. : Faits et chiffres Archived 30 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine, UN, 26 October 2016
  21. : (5a) Fatalities by Year, Mission and Incident Type up to 31 Aug 2016 Archived 13 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, UN, 8 September 2016
  22. "Darfur Conflict". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  23. "Sudan". United to End Genocide. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  24. "Darfur Peace Agreement – Doha draft" (PDF). Sudan Tribune. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  25. "Sudan Military Strength". GFP. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  26. "Transcript of BBC interview with President George W. Bush".
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Darfur: A 'Plan B' to Stop Genocide?". US Department of State. 2007-04-11.
  28. "UN 'rules out' genocide in Darfur". BBC News.
  29. "UN rules out genocide in Darfur". BBC News.
  30. Report of the International of Inquiry in Darfur to the United Nations Secretary General (PDF) (PDF). UN. 25 January 2005.
  31. "Rights Group Says Sudan's Government Aided Militias". Washington Post. 2004-07-20. Archived from the original on 2006-02-04. Retrieved 2007-01-14.
  32. "The horrors of Darfur's ground zero". The Australian. 2007-05-28.
  33. "Darfur Destroyed - Summary". Human Rights Watch. 2004-05. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  34. "Darfur Destroyed -Destroying Evidence?". Human Rights Watch. 2004-05. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  35. "Country Of Origin Report: Sudan" (PDF). Research, Development and Statistics (RDS), Home Office, UK. 2006-10-27.
  36. "Tribune correspondent charged as spy in Sudan". LA Times. 2006-08-26.
  37. "World Press Freedom Review". International Press Institute. 2005.
  38. "Police put on a show of force, but are Darfur's militia killers free to roam?". The Times. 2004-08-12.
  39. "UN expert reports gross violations of human rights by all sides in Darfur". UN News Service. 7 August 2007.
  40. "African Union force ineffective, complain refugees in Darfur". The Washington Post. 2006-10-16.
  41. "Hundreds killed in attacks in eastern Chad". Associated Press. 2007-04-11.
  42. "US angry over Sudan leader's denial of role in Darfur atrocities". Voice Of America. 2007-03-20.
  43. "With Sudan a member, the UN is pointless". The Times. 2006-10-24.