Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
|Distinguished Flying Cross|
|Awarded by United Kingdom and Commonwealth|
|Eligibility||British, Commonwealth, and allied forces|
|Awarded for||... exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy in the air.|
|Established||3 June 1918|
|Total awarded||George V: 11,227|
George VI: 21,657
|Order of Wear|
|Next (higher)||Military Cross|
|Next (lower)||Air Force Cross|
|Related||Distinguished Flying Medal|
The Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) is the third-level military medal given to members of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services. It was also given to members of other Commonwealth countries. The medal was awarded for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against the enemy".
History[change | change source]
The award was established on 3 June 1918, shortly after the formation of the Royal Air Force (RAF). It was originally awarded to RAF officers. During the Second World War, it was also awarded to Royal Artillery officers serving with the RAF as pilots and artillery observers. In 1993 the medal replaced the Distinguished Flying Medal, which had until then been awarded to other ranks. People awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross are allowed to use the post-nominal letters "DFC". A bar is added to the ribbon for holders of the DFC who received a second award.
During the First World War, about 1,100 DFCs were awarded, with 70 first bars and 3 second bars. During the Second World War, 20,354 DFCs were awarded, the most of any award, with about 1,550 first bars and 45 second bars.
Honorary awards were made on 964 occasions to people from other non-Commonwealth countries.
Description[change | change source]
The decoration is a cross flory and is 2⅛ inches wide. The horizontal and bottom bars have bumps at the end, while the upper bar has a rose. The front of the medal has aeroplane propellers, placed on the vertical arms of the cross, and wings on the horizontal arms. In the centre is a laurel wreath around the RAF monogram, with a heraldic Imperial Crown on the top.
The back of the medal has the Royal Cypher in the centre and the year of issue engraved on the lower arm. The decoration is issued named.
The ribbon was originally white with purple broad horizontal stripes. This was changed in 1919 to the current white with purple broad diagonal stripes.
|Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon bars|
|DFC||DFC and Bar||DFC and Two Bars|
Notable award winners[change | change source]
- John Balmer, RAAF pilot
- Roy Calvert; RNZAF pilot who was awarded the DFC three times.
- Major General Levi R. Chase; American flying ace, awarded DFC with Bar (WWII and Korea)
- Flight Lieutenant Pierre Clostermann, French RAF officer; in 1945 who was awarded RAF DFC & Bar.
- Harry Cobby; flying ace of the Australian Flying Corps who was awarded the DFC three times.
- Gordon Cochrane; RNZAF pilot who was awarded the DFC three times.
- Flight Lieutenant Michelle Goodman; in 2008, she became the first woman to be awarded the DFC.
- Peter Stanley James, RAF
- Philip Robinson, RAF pilot who was awarded the DFC three times.
- Arjan Singh; Indian Air Force was awarded the DFC. He later become Marshal of Indian Air Force
- Mohinder Singh Pujji; Indian Air Force was awarded the DFC.
- Group Captain Peter Woolridge Townsend; Royal Air Force CVO, DSO, DFC & Bar (22 November 1914 – 19 June 1995) was a British Royal Air Force officer, flying ace, courtier and author. He was Equerry to King George VI 1944–1952 and held the same position for Queen Elizabeth II 1952–1953. Townsend also had a romance with Princess Margaret.
- Harold Whistler; Royal Flying Corps flying ace who was awarded the DFC three times.
References[change | change source]
- "Medals: campaigns, descriptions and eligibility". Ministry of Defence. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Mussell, John W. (1 September 2012). Medal Yearbook 2013. Honiton: Token Books. p. 86. ISBN 1908828005. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- "JSP 761: Honours and Awards in the Armed Forces" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. December 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "No. 31674". The London Gazette. 5 December 1919. p. 15049
- Carter, Nick; Carter, Carol (1998). The Distinguished Flying Cross and How It Was Won. London: Savannah Publications. ISBN 190236600X.
- Crompton, Ann, ed. (1999). Edward Carter Preston, 1885–1965: Sculptor, Painter, Medallist. Liverpool: University of Liverpool Art Gallery. ISBN 0853237921.
- "Recommendation: Distinguished Flying Cross". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 16 June 2016.[permanent dead link]
- Harris, Paul (8 March 2008). "The brown-eyed, blonde RAF hero who is proud to wear her uniform". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- "No. 58633". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 March 2008. p. 3616.