Water

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Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves

Water is the most common liquid on Earth. It covers about 71.4% of the Earth.[1] Pure water has no smell, taste, or color.

Lakes, oceans,seas, and rivers are made of water. Precipitation is water that falls from clouds in the sky. It may be rain (liquid) if warm, or it may be frozen if cold. If water gets very cold (below 0 degrees Celsius), it freezes and becomes ice, the frozen variant of water. If water gets very hot (above 100 degrees Celsius), it boils and becomes steam.

Water is very important for life.[2] However, some studies suggest that by 2025 more than half the people around the world will not have enough water.[3]

Physical chemistry of water[change | change source]

Water is a fluid. Water is the only chemical substance on earth that exists naturally in three states. People know of over 40 anomalies about water.[4][5] Unlike most other liquids such as alcohol or oil, when water freezes, it expands by about 9%.[6][7][8] This expansion can cause pipes to break if the water inside them freezes.

Molecule of Water.
Molecule of Water.

Water is a molecule made of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. Its chemical formula is H2O. Like other liquids, water has a surface tension, so a little water can make drops on a surface, rather than always spreading out to wet the surface.[9] Things having something to do with water may have "hydro" or "aqua" in their name, such as hydropower or aquarium, from the Greek and Latin names for water. It is also called the universal solvent, because it dissolves many things.

Uses of water[change | change source]

Plants and animals (including people) are mostly water inside, and must drink water to live. It gives a medium for chemical reactions to take place, and is the main part of blood. It keeps the body temperature the same by sweating from the skin. Water helps blood carry nutrients from the stomach to all parts of the body to keep the body alive. Water also helps the blood carry oxygen from the lungs to the body. Saliva, which helps animals and people digest food, is mostly water. Water helps make urine. Urine helps remove bad chemicals from the body. The human body is between 60% and 70% water.

Water is the main component of drinks like milk, juice, and wine. Each type of drink also has other things that add flavor or nutrients, things like sugar, fruit, and sometimes alcohol. Water that a person can drink is called "potable water" (or "drinking water"). The water in oceans is salt water, but lakes and rivers usually have unsalted water. Only about 3% of all the water on earth is fresh water. The rest is salt water.[10][11]

Drop of water falling from a faucet.

Many places, including cities and deserts, don't have as much water as people want. They build aqueducts to bring water there.

Though people can survive a few months without food, they can only survive for a day or two without water. A few desert animals can get enough water from their food, but the others must drink. Water has no smell,taste or color

Water is also used for recreational purposes, see list of water sports.

Water is used as both the coolant and the neutron moderator in most nuclear reactors. This may be ordinary water (called light water in the nuclear industry) or heavy water.

Dihydrogen Monoxide parody[change | change source]

The dihydrogen monoxide parody involves calling water by the unfamiliar chemical name "dihydrogen monoxide" (DHMO) and listing some of its harmful effects in an alarming way. Some examples include talking about how "it causes burning, suffocation and corrosion," when it's actually just talking about hot water, drowning and rust. Sometimes the parody calls for it to be banned and/or labelled as dangerous.

The prank works because it takes advantage of people's misunderstanding. Calling water by an unfamiliar name and making it sound like a harmful chemical can make people think it's dangerous, if they don't know that you're just talking about water.

"Dihydrogen monoxide" is an alternative chemical name for water, but nobody uses it. The word "dihydrogen" means two hydrogens, and "monoxide" means one oxygen. Water's chemical formula has two hydrogens and one oxygen.

The parody gained most of its popularity in the 1990s, when a 14-year-old named Nathan Zohner collected anti-DHMO petitions for a science project about gullibility. Zohner fooled a lot of people, which has led to his project being used in lessons about critical thinking and the scientific method.

The website DHMO.org is a joke website which lists the harmful effects of water (DHMO), answers questions, and calls for it to be banned among other things.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "CIA- The world fact book". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2008-12-20.is
  2. "United Nations". Un.org. 2005-03-22. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
  3. Kulshreshtha S.N. 1998. "A global outlook for water resources to the Year 2025". Water Resources Management 12 (3): 167–184. doi:10.1023/A:1007957229865. 
  4. "Anomalous properties of water". lsbu.ac.uk. 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  5. "Forty-one anomalies of water « Fairy LoRe". fathersergio.wordpress.com. 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  6. "8(a) Physical Properties of Water". physicalgeography.net. 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011. pan
  7. "Understanding the processes of erosion". mountainnature.com. 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
  8. "iapws.org". iapws.org. 2000. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
  9. "Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force". Boundless. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  10. "Percentage of water".
  11. "Fresh water percentage (2)".

Other websites[change | change source]