The Durand Line was a frontier boundary between Afghanistan and British India. It was established after an 1897 memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Mortimer Durand of British India and Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan. Referred to as a frontier line, it is named after Mortimer Durand, who was the Foreign Secretary of colonial British India at the time. Later, Abdur Rahman Khan's successor, Amir Habibullah Khan signed a new agreement with Britain which again confirmed the legality of the Durand Line. King Amanullah Khan also accepted Durand line as international border between Afghanistan and British India after signing the Anglo-Afghan treaty of 1919. Article 5 of this treaty, on the basis of which Afghanistan reclaimed its independence, says that Afghanistan accepted all previously agreed border arrangements with British India. Hence, Afghanistan thereby recognized Durand line as international border.
The Durand Line cuts through the Afghan tribal areas, politically dividing ethnic Pashtuns and Baloch people who live on both sides. The line is internationally recognized by many countries as the western border of Pakistan, but Afghan governments after 1947 never recognized it. It has also been recognized as international boundary by the United Nations.
Afghan Pashtun leaders claim Pakistani territories and say that the Durand Line is "an issue of historical importance for Afghanistan. The Afghan people, not the government, can take a final decision on it." However, non-Pashtuns Afghans have always recognized durand line as international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Similarly, Pakistani Pashtuns have also recognized Durand line as international border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. In 2017 President Hamid Karzai said Afghanistan "will never accept" the Durand Line.
References[change | change source]
- "Why the Durand Line Matters". The Diplomat.
- Smith, Cynthia (August 2004). "A Selection of Historical Maps of Afghanistan - The Durand Line". United States: Library of Congress. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
- "Afghanistan ready to OK 9 US bases after 2014 troop pullout, Karzai says". Associated Press. 25 March 2015.
- "Nationalists against raking up border spat". www.pajhwok.com.
- "No change in stance on Durand Line: Faizi". Pajhwok Afghan News. October 24, 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-11.
- Grare, Frédéric (October 2006). "Carnegie Papers - Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations in the Post-9/11 Era" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-11.
- "Afghan parliamentarian backs Durand Line as border". Express Tribune.
- Siddiqui, Dawn com | Naveed (2017-03-05). "Afghanistan will never recognise the Durand Line: Hamid Karzai". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2020-07-09.