|Pronunciation||[ˈneːdərlɑnts] ( listen)|
|Native to||mainly the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname, also in Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, as well as Australia, Canada, France (French Flanders), Germany, Indonesia, South Africa, United States.|
|Region||mainly Western Europe, today also in South America and the Caribbean.
Afrikaans is spoken in Southern Africa.
|Native speakers||21 million (2007)
(not including Afrikaans)
|Writing system||Latin (Dutch alphabet)|
|Official language in|| Kingdom of the Netherlands
Union of South American Nations
|Regulated by||Nederlandse Taalunie
(Dutch Language Union)
|ISO 639-2||dut (B)
52-ACB-aa to -an)
Dutch (Nederlands) is a language which comes from the Netherlands and is the country's official language. It is also spoken in the northern half of Belgium (the region called Flanders), and in the South American country of Suriname. A language known as Afrikaans was developed from Dutch by the people in southern Africa and is now spoken mainly in South Africa but also in nearby Namibia. About 22 million people around the world speak Dutch.
History[change | change source]
Dutch is a West Germanic language The West Germanic branch is divided into English, Frisian, German and Dutch. It is why Dutch is very much like English in its vocabulary and grammar, though it resembles German more than English does.
The Dutch of before 1170 is called Old Dutch (Oudnederlands). The Dutch between 1170 and 1500 is called Middle Dutch (Middelnederlands), which is also called Diets. That's why Dutch is called Dutch in English. The oldest Dutch book known is Wachtendonckse Psalmen which was written in 900. The first Dutch writer we know by name is Hendrik van Veldeke, who was born around 1150.
Letters[change | change source]
Dutch uses the same roman alphabet (letters) as English.
Vowels[change | change source]
|a – like the a in art.||aa – somewhat like the "i" in Fire|
|e – like in pet||ee – like the "a" in space|
|o – like in organic||oo – like in no|
|u – somewhat like the "e" in the||uu – like the "ü" in the German word für|
|i – like in lip||ie – like in piece|
Note: The e can also be a schwa (like in the)
- oe – like the "ou" in you
- eu – like the French "eu" in fleur
- ui – typical Dutch sound, but almost identical to the French word oeuil (= eye)
- ou/au – like in sound
- ij/ei – typical Dutch sound, the same as "ej" in esperanto (not in polish)
- aai – like the "i" in ice
- eeuw – typical Dutch sound
- ieuw – somewhat like "iew" in view
Open and Closed syllables[change | change source]
The way of how vowels are pronounced, depends on the fact if the syllable is open or closed. If a syllable is open, short written vowels are spoken as long ones. Short written vowels are only spoken short if the syllable is closed. Example:
- The word praten can be divided into 2 syllables: Pra|ten. Because pra is open, the a is pronounced like aa.
- The word plat only has one syllables, and the a is therefore short (just a).
There is, however, an exception to this rule. This is the "e". This is because "e" can also be a "mute e" (Schwa) (IPA character ə). In most words, where an open syllable ends with e it is a short e. Therefore, open syllables with a long e (ee) are written as ee. Example:
- The word "me" contains an e and is not pronounced as "mee". (Mee has a totally different meaning).
There are, however, exceptions to this rule as well. This can be seen in the word meenemen. This word can be divided into three syllables: mee|ne|men. The e's in the first two syllables are long ones, but the last one is a mute e.
The mute e also occurs in the ending of verbs (usually -en).
Consonants[change | change source]
- g/ch – not pronounced as the English G; the Dutch G is pronounced in the back of the throat with a "scratching" sound. In the south of the Netherlands, the G is spoken differently (so called soft G) than in the north (hard G).
- j – like "y" in you
- q – only used rarely; spoken as k
- r – not like English; the Dutch R is a more rolling R
- x – only used rarely, mostly in foreign words, pronounced as ks
Note: In words that end with "-d", the "-d" is pronounced like "-t".
Grammar[change | change source]
The grammar of Dutch is slightly different from English. The order in which words are put in sentences are different in complex sentences. The most simple sentence-structure is "Subject - Verb". The Dutch language has few grammatical tenses. The most used are:
- onvoltooide tegenwoordige tijd (present simple)
- onvoltooide verleden tijd (past simple)
- voltooide tegenwoordige tijd (present perfect)
- voltooide verleden tijd (past perfect)
Onvoltooid tegenwoordige tijd[change | change source]
The most simple verb-time is the onvoltooide tegenwoordige tijd (ott; present simple). The ott is used when something is occurring now, or regularly (like: Hij eet regelmatig (He eats regularly)). Most verbs are conjugated (changed) in a regular form (these verbs are called regelmatige werkwoorden (regular verbs)). The word stem of the verb is still there in all of the conjugations (changes). The correct way of doing this is
|Person||Verb conjugation||Example with "lopen" (to walk)|
|Ik (I)||Stem||Ik loop|
|Jij (you)||Stem+t||Jij loopt|
|Hij/Zij (He/She)||Stem+t||Hij loopt|
|Wij (we)||stem+en* (infinitive)||Wij lopen|
|Zij (they)||stem+en*||Zij lopen|
|Jullie (you, plural)||stem+en*||Jullie lopen|
|U (you, polite)||stem+t'||U loopt|
Note*: The stem of a verb is the infinitive of the verb without the final -en. In some verbs, the first syllable is open, and any vowel therefore is long. The stem changes to a written long vowel. So the stem of lopen becomes loop. If the -en is then added to the stem (for example with wij), the written form becomes short again (but it still will be spoken as a long vowel).
Onvoltooid verleden tijd[change | change source]
The past form of the ott is the onvoltooid verleden tijd (ovt; past simple). The way how verbs are conjugated (changed) in the ovt is not easy to understand, and is mistaken often. This is because some verbs are conjugated by adding a D, while others are conjugated while adding a T. A way of solving this problem is the socalled 't kofschip. If the verb without -en (the stem in most verbs, but not always) ends with a consonant which is also in "'t kofschip", the verb is changed with a T. Example:
- The verb praten (to talk) is changed with a T, because prat ends with a T.
The verb can now be changed as the following:
|Person||Verb conjugation (with T)||Result with praten|
|Zij (they)||stem+ten||Zij praatten|
There are however words in "'t kofschip" are not so easy. This is for instance in the word vrezen (to fear). The stem of the verb is vrees, so it seems that the verb is changed with a T. This is not true (it changed with a D), because vrezen minus -en is vrez. The Z is not in "'t kofschip", so the verb is changed with a D.
The verb can now be changed as the following:
|Person||Verb conjugation (with D)||Result with Vrezen|
|Zij (they)||stem+den||Zij vreesden|
Continuating verbs[change | change source]
Although the Dutch have a kind of present continuous (the -ing form of verbs in English), they do not use it much. Example:
- The senctence "I am eating", is in Dutch "Ik eet", which is literally "I eat".
- The present continuous in Dutch would be "Ik ben etende", but this is almost never used.
Actually, there are three types of continuous verbs in Dutch.
- The first type is a form of the verb zijn (to be) with the actual continuous verb. This is done, by adding de on the infinitive. It's not wrong to use this in Dutch, but it will sound very odd. It is only used in very formal texts.
- The second type is a type where the verb actually functions as an adverb. Depending on subject, the verb is changed by adding either a "d" or "de" to the infinitive. The verb then has the function of while..... An example: Hij liep drinkend de supermarkt uit. In English this is He walked out of the supermarket, while drinking .
- The third type is a type which is used a lot. The use of this type can be compared with the English type of continuous. It is used when something is being done, at that moment, but still not completed yet. It is made up by a form of zijn + aan het + the infinitive. Example: Ik ben aan het lopen, which means I am walking (at the moment).
Examples[change | change source]
Ik heet ... (my name is...)
Ik hou van je (I love you)
Numbers[change | change source]
In number with three digits (e.g. 100), the Dutch change the u into o and replace 1 of the r's. Example:
- The number 100 becomes: honderd, which literally means hundred.
Basic Dutch expressions[change | change source]
|Tot later!||See you later!|
|Goedemorgen/Goedemiddag||Good morning/Good afternoon|
|Goedenavond/Goedenacht||Good evening/Good night|
|Hoe gaat het met je?||How are you? (informal)|
|Hoe gaat het met u?||How are you? (formal)|
|Met mij gaat het goed!||I am fine!|
|Dank je/Dank u||Thank you (informal/formal)|
|Graag gedaan||You are welcome|
|Spreekt u Engels?||Do you speak English?|
|Spreekt u Nederlands?||Do you speak Dutch?|
|Ik begrijp het niet||I do not understand|
|Mijn naam is...||My name is...|
|Ik ben...||I am...|
|Wat is je naam?||What is your name? (informal)|
|Wat is uw naam?||What is your name? (formal)|
|Waar kom je vandaan?||Where are you from? (informal)|
|Waar komt u vandaan?||Where are you from? (formal)|
|Ik kom uit Nederland/België||I'm from the Netherlands/Belgium|
|Wat is er?||What's wrong?|
|Sorry, waar is het station?||Excuse me, where is the train station?|
|Hoeveel kost deze trui?||How much is this sweater?|
References[change | change source]
- Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
- "Language". I Amsterdam. http://www.iamsterdam.com/en/visiting/about-amsterdam/history-and-society/language. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- Wayne C. Thompson, Western Europe 2015-2016 (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015), p. 201
- Pierre Brachin, The Dutch Language: A Survey (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1985), p. 4
|This language has its own Wikipedia project. See the Dutch language edition.|