The English used in this article or section may not be easy for everybody to understand. (November 2013)
The Dutch resistance was a movement of Dutch people who fought against the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands during World War II. They fought the Nazis in many different ways, mostly without using violence. The resistance helped to hide 300,000 people in the autumn of 1944.
Dutch resistance developed slowly. In 1941, Dutch people organized a strike, called the February strike, to protest against the Nazis deporting over 400 Jews. This encouraged the resistance. The Dutch communists set up a system of cells (small groups of resistance members). Some other very amateur groups also formed, like De Geuzen, set up by Bernard IJzerdraat. Some military groups started, such as the Ordedienst ('order service'). Most groups were discovered by the Nazis during the first two years of the war.
Dutch resistance groups gathered counterintelligence (information about the Nazis), committed sabotage, and formed communications networks. This helped the Allied forces, beginning in 1944 and continuing until the Netherlands was liberated. About 75% (105,000 out of 140,000) of Dutch Jews were killed in the Holocaust, most of them murdered in Nazi death camps. A number of resistance groups specialized in saving Jewish children. Somewhere between 215 and 500 Dutch Romanis were also killed by the Nazis.
Definition[change | change source]
The Dutch defined several types of resistance. They did not think of these things as resistance:
- Going into hiding
- Not following German rules
- Public protests
- Publishing illegal papers
- Sabotaging (destroying) companies in the Netherlands was not seen as resistance until recently
Only active resistance in the form of spying, sabotage, or fighting with weapons was considered resistance.
Thousands were arrested by the Nazis and jailed for months, tortured, sent to concentration camps, or killed.
The Dutch February Strike of 1941, protesting deportation of Jews from the Netherlands, was the only such strike in Nazi-occupied Europe. It was not defined as resistance by the Dutch.
After the war, the Dutch created and awarded a Resistance Cross to only 95 people.
Prelude[change | change source]
Before the Germans invaded, the Netherlands were neutral. The Dutch had not fought in a war with any European nation since 1830. During World War I, the Netherlands were not invaded by Germany. The German ex-Kaiser even fled to the Netherlands in 1918. Because of this, the German invasion in World War II was a great shock. The Netherlands ordered its army to get ready in September 1939.
Even though Netherlands was still neutral, and had not gotten involved with any side during World War II, the country's large merchant fleet was attacked by the Germans after the beginning of World War II. The Nazis sank the Dutch passenger ship SS Simon Bolivar in November 1939, killing 84 people. This shocked the Netherlands. This was not the only Dutch ship that was destroyed.
German invasion[change | change source]
On 10 May 1940, German troops started to attack the Netherlands. The Germans invaded with about 750,000 men. This was three times the size of the Dutch army. The Germans invaded with 1,100 planes (the Dutch army had 125) and six armoured trains. They destroyed 80% of the Dutch military aircraft by bombing, although the Germans did lose over 500 planes in the attack.
Major areas of military resistance were in:
- The Grebbelinie near Amsterdam
- Kornwerderzand, which had fortified bunkers
- Rotterdam, the bridges defended by Dutch Marines
About 2,000 Dutch soldiers died fighting the Nazi invasion. So did at least 800 civilians, who died in Rotterdam.
Initial German policy[change | change source]
The first German round-up of Jews in February 1941 led to the first general strike against the Germans.
Dutch social democrats, Catholics, and communists started the resistance movement. At first, if the Germans discovered people were involved in the resistance, they put them in jail. However, if a person was a member of an armed or military group, the Nazis could send them to concentration camps. After mid-1944, Hitler ordered his soldiers to shoot all resistance members. The Nazis also did revenge attacks against civilians, where they killed innocent civilians after resistance activities happened.
The Nazis deported the Dutch Jews to concentration and extermination camps. They started building fortifications along the coast and constructed 30 airfields. They forced adult males between 18 and 45 to work in German factories or on public work projects. In 1944, most trains were sent to Germany and 550,000 Dutch people were sent to Germany as laborers. Resistance became better organized and more forceful. The resistance killed high-ranking Dutch officials, such as General Seyffardt.
In the Netherlands, the Germans managed to kill many Jews.
Activities[change | change source]
On 25 February 1941, the Communist Party of the Netherlands called for a general strike, the 'February Strike'. German troops reacted by firing on unarmed crowds, and taking many prisoners. However, the strike was important because resistance against the Nazi occupation got stronger afterward.
Dutch resistance was usually secret. Resistance in the Netherlands included sabotage (like cutting phone lines, distributing anti-German leaflets, or tearing down posters). Some small groups collected intelligence and published underground papers such as De Waarheid, Trouw, Vrij Nederland, and Het Parool. They also sabotaged phone lines.
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Dr L. de Jong: Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog
- Stone, Dan (2010). Histories of the Holocaust. Oxford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-19-956680-8.
- Klempner, Mark (2006). The Heart Has Reasons. U.S.: The Pilgrim Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-8298-1699-2.
- Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9 page 422.
- See Ten Days' Campaign
- "A Forgotten Chapter", Holland Under the Third Reich, lecture by Anthony Anderson at the University of Southern California on October 17, 1995. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
- Duncan, George. "Maritime Disasters of World War II". Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- The Netherlands and the beginning of World War II from Marketgarden.com. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
- The Dutch Resistance and the OSS — Central Intelligence Agency
- Resistance from Holocaust and Resistance in World War II Netherlands. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
- Genocide from Holocaust and Resistance in World War II Netherlands. Retrieved 11 April 2008
More reading[change | change source]
- Bentley, Stewart. The Dutch Resistance and the OSS (2012)
- Bentley, Stewart. Orange Blood, Silver Wings: The Untold Story of the Dutch Resistance During Market-Garden (2007)
- Fiske, Mel, and Christina Radich. Our Mother's War: A Biography of a Child of the Dutch Resistance (2007)
- van der Horst, Liesbeth. The Dutch Resistance Museum (2000)
- Schaepman, Antoinette. Clouds: Episode of Dutch Wartime Resistance, 1940-45 (1982)
- Sellin, Thorsten, ed. "The Netherlands during German Occupation," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Vol. 245, May, 1946 pp i to 180 in JSTOR
- Warmbrunn, Werner. The Dutch under German occupation, 1940–1945 (Stanford University Press, 1963)
- Dewulf, Jeroen. Spirit of Resistance: Dutch Clandestine Literature under the Nazi Occuaption (Rocher NY: Camden House, 2010)
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dutch resistance during World War II.|
- CIA paper on the Dutch resistance and the OSS
- Homepage of the Dutch Resistance Museum in Amsterdam
- Dutch Resistance Museum – history and practical information.
- Discussion of the Netherlands under Nazi occupation
- On war atrocities in Holland, some in revenge for resistance activities
- "A true story of a Scout in times of War, by Piet J Kroonenberg"
- Jan de Hartog's speech given at Weber State College – his personal account of his participation in non-violent Dutch Resistance as an author.