Eastern Kurdistan

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Eastern Kurdistan or Iranian Kurdistan is the unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds, or the part of Kurdistan that is within Iran. Some of Iranian Kurdistan is in Iran's Kurdistan Province.

There are about 7 million Kurds in Iran. The Kurdish population is about one tenth of Iran's whole population.[1]:27

Between five and seven million Kurds live in Iranian Kurdistan. Most are Sunni, but about 1.5 million are Shia Kermanshahi Kurds, who have not interest in Kurdistan becoming independent.[2][3]

Iranian Kurdistan is next to the Iraqi Kurdistan. Further to the west are Turkish Kurdistan and Syrian Kurdistan.

Kurds in Iran speak a number of Kurdish languages. Kurdish language is the most important sign of Kurdish cultural identity in Iran.[4]:400 Kurdish is an Iranian language and an Indo-European language like the Persian language, but people that speak Persian do not understand Kurdish.[4]:400

Most Kurds in Iran speak the Sorani dialect. Kurds in the Kurdish cities of Mahabad, Saqqez, Sanandaj, and Marivan speak Sorani. Kurds also speak Sorani in Arbil, Sulaymaniyah, and Kirkuk in nearby Iraqi Kurdistan. In Kermanshah, Kurds speak the Kirmanshani dialect. In the Lorestan area, the Lurs people speak the Luri language. The Luri language has similarities with the Kirmanshani dialect. Kermanshah is next to Lorestan. Around the city of Paveh and some other towns, Kurds speak the Gorani language.[4]:400

After the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–1911, the Kurds in Iranian Kurdistan's towns supported the new system of local government, but the Kurdish tribes in the countryside supported the shah (the king of Iran).[5]:57

At a Kurdish congress, Sheikh Ubeydullah brought together Kurds from Iranian Kurdistan and Kurds from the parts of Kurdistan in the Ottoman Empire. Sheikh Ubeydullah worked for the unification of Iranian Kurdistan with Ottoman Kurdistan, and for political independence in Kurdistan.[5]:55-57

Iran's Islamic Republic stopped letting foreign scholars travel into Iran in the 1980s. Because of this, people outside Iran do not know much about Kurds in Iran or about Iranian Kurdistan.[1]:27

The United Nations says that the Iranian government oppresses Kurds in Iran.[1]:27 Asma Jahangir told the United Nations Human Rights Council that almost half of all the political prisoners in Iran were Kurds.[6][1]:27 One fifth of all the people executed in Iran during 2016 were Kurds.[6][1]:27

Poetry is important for Iranian Kurds, because their position is made difficult by the ideology and oppression of Iran.[7]:95 The culture of Iranian Kurdistan is close to Iraqi Kurdistan's culture.[7]:97 Modern Kurdish language poetry in Iranian Kurdistan came from the Kurdish poetry of modern Iraqi Kurdistan and from modern Persian language poetry.[7]:95 The most important poets include Sware Ilkhanizadeh, Fateh Sheikh, Ali Hasaniani and Solayman Chireh.[7]:95 After the Republic of Mahabad fell in 1946, three important Iranian Kurdish poets moved to Iraqi Kurdistan: Abdurrahman Sharafkandi (known as Hazhar); Muhammad Amin Shiekholeslami (known as Hemin); and Khalid Hisami (known as Hedi).[7]:100 Iraqi Kurdish poetry was most important for Iranian Kurdish poets in the 1980s. From the 1990s, newer poets like Azad Rostami and Behzad Kordestani used newer forms in their poetry. Poets of Iranian Kurdistan now include Omid Warzandeh, Raza Alipour, Kambiz Karimi, Jalal Malaksha and Saleh Suzani.[7]:95 Some Iranian Kurdish writers have written novels which are important to Kurdish literature. Writers like Ata Nahayee, Qader Hedayati, Shahram Qawami and Kamran Hamidi have published novels in Iraqi Kurdistan as well as in Iranian Kurdistan.[7]:97 Many Iranian Kurds have worked to improve Kurdish culture in Iraqi Kurdistan.[7]:100 In Iraqi Kurdistan, written works by Iranian Kurdish writers are very common.[7]:97 Publishers in Arbil and Sulaymaniyah in Iraqi Kurdistan make Sorani Kurdish translations of works written in other Kurdish dialects.[7]:97

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Eccarius-Kelly, Vera (2018). "Kurdish studies in Europe". In Gunter, Michael M. (ed.). Routledge Handbook on the Kurds (1st ed.). Abingdon and New York: Routledge. pp. 22–33. doi:10.4324/9781315627427-3. ISBN 978-1-315-62742-7.
  2. The Kurdish Nationalist Movement by David Romano, page 235
  3. A Modern History of the Kurds by McDowall, page 270
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Entessar, Nader (2018). "Iran and the Kurds". In Gunter, Michael M. (ed.). Routledge Handbook on the Kurds (1st ed.). Abingdon and New York: Routledge. pp. 399–409. doi:10.4324/9781315627427-30. ISBN 978-1-315-62742-7.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Bozarslan, Hamit (2018). "An overview of Kurdistan in the 19th century". In Gunter, Michael M. (ed.). Routledge Handbook on the Kurds (1st ed.). Abingdon and New York: Routledge. pp. 48–61. doi:10.4324/9781315627427-5. ISBN 978-1-315-62742-7.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Asma, Jahangir (2017-03-17). "UN Human Rights Council: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran". United Nations Digital Library System: 17. Violations of the rights of ethnic minorities continue to be reported in the country. Almost one fifth of the executions carried out in Iran in 2016 concerned Kurdish prisoners. Among those executions, 21 were related to the crime of "moharebeh" (waging war against God and the State) and 1 to membership in a Kurdish political party. Kurdish political prisoners are said to represent almost half of the total number of political prisoners in the country.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 Ahmadzadeh, Hashem (2018). "Classical and modern Kurdish literature". In Gunter, Michael M. (ed.). Routledge Handbook on the Kurds (1st ed.). Abingdon and New York: Routledge. pp. 90–103. doi:10.4324/9781315627427-8. ISBN 978-1-315-62742-7.