Echium vulcanorum

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Echium vulcanorum
Fogo-Echium vulcanorum (2).JPG
Echium vulcanorum in Chã das Caldeiras.
Scientific classification
E. vulcanorum
Binomial name
Echium vulcanorum
A.Chev., 1935

Echium vulcanorum is a plant species that belongs to the Boraginaceae family, the borage family. It is found only in the Fogo island, Cape Verde.

It was discovered and named by the French botanist Auguste Jean Baptiste Chevalier. He found the plant with flowers on July 1934.[1]

Common names[change | change source]

It is locally known as lingua de vaca ("tongue of cow") because their leaves are rough. The same name is used for the other species of Echium that are found in Cape Verde: Echium hypertropicum and Echium stenosiphon.

Description[change | change source]

It is a shrub with many branches, up to 1.5–2 m tall. The stems are covered with many hairs. The leaves are lanceolates (pointed at both ends) up to 10 cm long and 1.5 wide.[2]

The flowers are in dense inflorescences (groups of flowers), almost conical, up to 18 cm long, with white flowers with blue stripes.[2] [3]

Echium vulcanorum in Chã das Caldeiras.

Where it grows[change | change source]

Echium vulcanorum is endemic of the Cape Verdean island of Fogo on the volcano Pico do Fogo. It occurs on volcanic soils of Fogo Island, mainly as two populations at Monte Losna/Pico Novo, where they can be found at about 1700 m, and in the border of the crater of the Pico do Fogo (the Bordeira region 14°55′01″N 24°21′09″W / 14.91694°N 24.35250°W / 14.91694; -24.35250) at altitudes between 2200 and 2400 m. A small population was also reported in Chã das Caldeiras (±1600 m). These populations exist generally in places facing to the southwest or the southeast. It prefers soils with a recent volcanic origin.[3][4]

Conservation[change | change source]

Echium vulcanorum is used for the production of firewood (dry wood that will be burned) and destroyed by goats, so this species, as well as the other two Echium species of Cape Verde, is seriously threatened, so that measures for its protection should be taken with urgency.[2]

Some conservation actions have been done at the Bordeira region (in the Natural Park of Fogo Island) and now there is a population with a relatively high number of individuals.[4]

References[change | change source]

  1. Auguste Chevalier (1935). Les îles du Cap Vert : géographie, biogéographie, agriculture. Flore de l'archipel (in French). Paris: Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, laboratoire d'agronomie coloniale. p. 915. Available on pdf at TelaBotanica
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Isildo Gomes; et al. (2003). Plantas endémicas e árvores indígenas das ilhas do Cabo Verde (in Portuguese). Cape Verde: Instituto Nacional de Investigação e Desenvolvimento Agrário and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeitand.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Romeiras, Maria M.; Ascensão, Lia; Duarte, Maria C.; Diniz, Maria A.; Pais, Maria S. (2008). "Taxonomy of Echium (Boraginaceae) species from Cape Verde Islands". Australian Systematic Botany. CSIRO. 21: 26–38. doi:10.1071/SB07016.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Romeiras, Maria M.; Cotrim, Helena C.; Duarte, Maria C.; Pais, Maria S. (2007). "Genetic diversity of three endangered species of Echium L. (Boraginaceae) endemic to Cape Verde Islands". Biodiversity and Conservation. Springer. 16 (2): 547–566. doi:10.1007/s10531-006-6734-0. S2CID 24503703.

Other websites[change | change source]