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Temporal range: Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian
Restoration of Edaphosaurus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Synapsida
Order: Pelycosauria
Family: Edaphosauridae
Genus: Edaphosaurus
Cope, 1882
Skull of Edaphosaurus in lateral and dorsal views.

Edaphosaurus was a pelycosaur (early Synapsid) that lived during the later Carboniferous and early Permian. It was a herbivorous relative of another pelycosaur, the well-known Dimetrodon, which also had a large, thermal regulating sail on its back. Fossils of Edaphosaurus have been found in Europe and North America.

Edaphosaurus was about 11 feet long and weighed more than 600 pounds. It was slightly taller and stockier than Dimetrodon, but like its pelycosaur relatives had a small head and a long tail.