Emasculation

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Emasculation is also used metaphorically to refer to the loss of a man's masculinity. A man is said to be emasculated when he loses, or is deprived of, a characteristic traditionally associated with being a man, such as power or independence. It is the removal of both the penis and the testicles, the external male sex organs. It differs from castration, which is the removal of the testicles only. Throughout the Indian subcontinent tradition, including India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, some members of the Hijra community reportedly undergo emasculation, or nirvan.[1] For the Hijra, emasculation does affect a recipient's gender identity, with some identifying as female, non-binary, or a third gender.[2]

  1. Bellringer 2017a, p. 249; Stief 2017, p. 74.
  2. Hossain 2012, p. 495; Khan et al., p. 442; Nanda 1999, p. 28; Stief 2016, p. 73.