Enver Hoxha

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Enver Hoxha
HODŽA druhá míza.jpg
Hoxha in c.1971-1972
First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania
In office
8 November 1941 – 11 April 1985
Succeeded byRamiz Alia
2nd Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Albania
In office
24 October 1944 – 18 July 1954
Preceded byIbrahim Biçakçiu (as Prime Minister of Albania)
Succeeded byMehmet Shehu
Personal details
Born(1908-10-16)16 October 1908
Ergiri (Gjirokastër), Janina Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
Died11 April 1985(1985-04-11) (aged 76)
Tirana, People's Socialist Republic of Albania
Political partyParty of Labour of Albania
Spouse(s)Nexhmije Hoxha

Enver Halil Hoxha (Albanian pronunciation: [ɛnˈvɛɾ ˈhɔdʒa] (audio speaker iconlisten); 16 October 1908 – 11 April 1985) was an Albanian politician who was the prime minister of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985. His title was First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He was a Communist dictator.

Under his regime, thousands of opponents ("dissidents") were executed, and tens of thousands more were imprisoned in forced labour camps.[1][2]

Early life[change | change source]

Hoxha was born in Gjirokastër, a city in southern Albania (then under the Ottoman Empire) that has been home to many prominent families. He was the son of Halil Hoxha, a Bektashi Tosk cloth merchant who traveled widely across Europe and the United States and Gjylihan (Gjylo) Hoxha. He was raised a member of a wealthy Muslim family of landowners and merchants.[3] He went to the best schools in Albania in the 1920s. He was given one of the few scholarships to a foreign college. In 1931 he attended the University of Montpellier in France.[3] He lost his scholarship in 1934 for poor performance and moved to Paris.[3]

Near the end of World War II he became the Prime Minister of Albania.[4]

References[change | change source]

  1. 40 Years of Socialist Albania, Dhimiter Picani
  2. "Enver Hoxha: Prime Minister of Albania". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South Eastern Europe ed. Bernd Jürgen Fischer (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2007), pp. 241–242
  4. Gillian Gloyer, Albania (Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt Travel Guides, 2012), p. 16
Political offices
Preceded by
New creation
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Albania
Succeeded by
Mehmet Shehu
Preceded by
Omer Nishani
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Albania
Succeeded by
Behar Shtylla