Epstein–Barr virus

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Human gammaherpesvirus 4
Electron microscope image of two Epstein-Barr virus viral particles. It shows round capsids (protein around the genetic material) loosely surrounded by the membrane envelope
Electron micrograph of two Epstein–Barr virions (viral particles).
It shows round capsids loosely surrounded by the membrane envelope
Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Duplodnaviria
Kingdom: Heunggongvirae
Phylum: Peploviricota
Class: Herviviricetes
Order: Herpesvirales
Family: Herpesviridae
Genus: Lymphocryptovirus
Human gammaherpesvirus 4
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Human herpesvirus 4
  • HHV-4
  • EBV
  • EPV (rarely used)

The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight viruses in the herpes family. It is one of the most common viruses in humans.

EBV is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever). It is also associated with some forms of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma, and conditions associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[2][3] EBV may be associated with a higher risk of certain autoimmune diseases.[4][5][6][7] Some 200,000 cancer cases per year may be caused by (or associated with) EBV.[8]

Infection with EBV occurs by the transfer by mouth (oral transfer) of saliva and genital secretions.[9]

Most people become infected with EBV and gain adaptive immunity. In the United States, about half of all five-year-old children and about 90 percent of adults have evidence of previous infection.[10] Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are just mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the United States and other developed countries, many people are not infected with EBV in their childhood years. When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence, it causes glandular fever 35 to 50 percent of the time.[11]

EBV infects B cells of the immune system and epithelial cells. Once EBV's initial infection is brought under control, non-active EBV stays in the person's B cells for the rest of their life.[9]

References[change | change source]

  1. "ICTV Taxonomy history: Human gammaherpesvirus 4". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  2. Maeda E; Akahane M. & Kiryu S.; et al. (2009). "Spectrum of Epstein–Barr virus-related diseases: a pictorial review". Jpn J Radiol. 27 (1): 4–19. doi:10.1007/s11604-008-0291-2. PMID 19373526. S2CID 6970917.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. Cherry-Peppers G.; et al. (2003). "Oral manifestations in the era of HAART". Journal of the National Medical Association. 95 (2 Suppl 2): 21S–32S. PMC 2568277. PMID 12656429.
  4. Toussirot E. & Roudier J. (2008). "Epstein–Barr virus in autoimmune diseases". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology. 22 (5): 883–96. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2008.09.007. PMID 19028369.
  5. Dreyfus DH (2011). "Autoimmune disease: A role for new anti-viral therapies?". Autoimmunity Reviews. 11 (2): 88–97. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2011.08.005. PMID 21871974.
  6. Pender M.P. (2012). "CD8+ T-cell deficiency, Epstein–Barr virus infection, Vitamin D deficiency, and steps to autoimmunity: a unifying hypothesis". Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 189096. doi:10.1155/2012/189096. PMC 3270541. PMID 22312480.
  7. Ascherio A. & Munger K.L. (September 2010). "Epstein–Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis: a review". Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology. 5 (3): 271–7. doi:10.1007/s11481-010-9201-3. PMID 20369303. S2CID 24409610.
  8. "Developing a vaccine for the Epstein-Barr Virus could prevent up to 200,000 cancers globally say experts". Cancer Research UK. 24 March 2014.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Amon, Wolfgang; Farrell (2004). "Reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus from latency". Reviews in Medical Virology. 15 (3): 149–56. doi:10.1002/rmv.456. PMID 15546128. S2CID 19433994.
  10. About 90% of adults have antibodies that show that they have a current or past EBV infection. National Center for Infectious Diseases
  11. CDC. "Epstein–Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis". CDC. Retrieved 2011-12-29.