|Two Epstein–Barr virions|
Group I (dsDNA)
Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4)
EBV is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever). It is also associated with some forms of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma, and conditions associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). EBV may be associated with a higher risk of certain autoimmune diseases. Some 200,000 cancer cases per year may be caused by (or associated with) EBV.
Most people become infected with EBV and gain adaptive immunity. In the United States, about half of all five-year-old children and about 90 percent of adults have evidence of previous infection. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are just mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the United States and other developed countries, many people are not infected with EBV in their childhood years. When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence, it causes glandular fever 35 to 50 percent of the time.
References[change | change source]
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- Cherry-Peppers G.; et al. (2003). "Oral manifestations in the era of HAART". Journal of the National Medical Association. 95 (2 Suppl 2): 21S–32S. PMC 2568277. PMID 12656429. Explicit use of et al. in:
- Toussirot E. & Roudier J. (2008). "Epstein–Barr virus in autoimmune diseases". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology. 22 (5): 883–96. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2008.09.007. PMID 19028369.
- Dreyfus DH (2011). "Autoimmune disease: A role for new anti-viral therapies?". Autoimmunity Reviews. 11 (2): 88–97. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2011.08.005. PMID 21871974.
- Pender M.P. (2012). "CD8+ T-cell deficiency, Epstein–Barr virus infection, Vitamin D deficiency, and steps to autoimmunity: a unifying hypothesis". Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 189096. doi:10.1155/2012/189096. PMC 3270541. PMID 22312480.
- Ascherio A. & Munger K.L. (September 2010). "Epstein–Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis: a review". Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology. 5 (3): 271–7. doi:10.1007/s11481-010-9201-3. PMID 20369303.
- "Developing a vaccine for the Epstein-Barr Virus could prevent up to 200,000 cancers globally say experts". Cancer Research UK. 24 March 2014.
- Amon, Wolfgang; Farrell (2004). "Reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus from latency". Reviews in Medical Virology. 15 (3): 149–56. doi:10.1002/rmv.456. PMID 15546128.
- About 90% of adults have antibodies that show that they have a current or past EBV infection. National Center for Infectious Diseases
- CDC. "Epstein–Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis". CDC. Retrieved 2011-12-29.