|Molar mass||28.05 g/mol|
|Density and phase||1.178 kg/m³ at 15 °C, gas|
|Solubility in water||3.5 mg/100 ml (17 °C)|
|Melting point||−169.2 °C (104.0 K, -272.6 °F)|
|Boiling point||−103.7 °C (169.5 K, -154.7 °F)|
Ethylene or ethene is a chemical compound with two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms in each molecule. These molecules are put together with a double bond that makes it a hydrocarbon. It is very important in industry and has even been used in biology as a hormone. It is also the most made chemical. About 75 million tons of it have been made each year since 2005. Its biggest use is to make polyethylene.
History[change | change source]
In 1866, the German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann came up with a system for naming hydrocarbons. The suffixes -ane, -ene, -ine, -one, and -une were used to call the hydrocarbons with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 fewer hydrogen atoms than the alkane it came from. Because of this system, ethylene became ethene.
How it is made[change | change source]
Ethylene is made in the chemical industry by steam cracking. Some of the parts of an ethylene plant can be:
- The steam cracking furnaces;
- Heat recovery systems;
- A steam recycling system;
- A system to compress the cracked gas;
- A system to remove acid gas;
There are other systems in an ethylene plant. The systems listed above were the most important systems in an ethylene plant.
Since making ethylene uses a lot of energy, the people making the ethylene try very hard to keep the heat from the gasses from leaving the furnaces.
References[change | change source]
- Wang K, Li H, Ecker J. "Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling networks.". Plant Cell 14 Suppl: S131-51. PMID 12045274.
- “Production: Growth is the Norm” Chemical and Engineering News, July 1 0, 2006, p. 59.
- A. W. Hofmann, LL.D., F.R.S.. "Hofmann's Proposal for Systematic Nomenclature of the Hydrocarbons". www.chem.yale.edu. http://www.chem.yale.edu/~chem125/125/history99/5Valence/Nomenclature/Hofmannaeiou.html. Retrieved 2007-01-06.