Extrasolar planet

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Artist's impression of Fomalhaut B, an exoplanet directly observed by the Hubble telescope
Planet Fomalhaut b (inset against Fomalhaut's interplanetary dust cloud) imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope's coronagraph (NASA photo)
Discovery image of the GJ 758 system, taken with Subaru telescope in the near infrared. It is unclear whether the companions should be regarded as planets or brown dwarfs.
2MASS J044144 is a brown dwarf with a companion about 5-10 times the mass of Jupiter. It is not clear whether this companion object is a sub-brown dwarf or a planet.
Exoplanet discoveries by year

An extrasolar planet (or exoplanet) is a natural planet in a planetary system outside our own solar system.

In 2013, estimates of the number of terrestrial planet in the Milky Way ranged from at least 17 billion[1] to at least 144 billion.[2]

An analysis was done of planet candidates gathered by the Kepler space observatory.[3] Among them are 461 Earth-size planets, at least four of which are in the "habitable zone" where liquid water can exist. One of the four, dubbed KOI 172.02, is a mere 1.5 times the size of the Earth and around a star like our own Sun – about as near as the current data allow to finding an "Earth 2.0".[3]

Earlier work suggested that there are at least 100 billion planets of all types in our galaxy, an average of at least one per star. There are also planets that orbit brown dwarfs, and free-floating planets that orbit the galaxy directly just as the stars do. It is unclear whether either type should be called a "planet".[4][5][6]

History[change | change source]

Early speculations[change | change source]

In the sixteenth century, the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno, an early supporter of the Copernican theory that the Earth and other planets orbit the Sun, put forward the view that the fixed stars are similar to the Sun and are likewise accompanied by planets. Bruno was burnt at the stake by the Holy Inquisition.[7]

In the eighteenth century, the same possibility was mentioned by Isaac Newton in his Principia. Making a comparison to the Sun's planets, he wrote "And if the fixed stars are the centers of similar systems, they will all be constructed according to a similar design and subject to the dominion of One".[8]

Confirmed discoveries[change | change source]

The first published and confirmed discovery was made in 1988.[9] It was finally confirmed in 1992.

In early 1992, radio astronomers announced the discovery of planets around another pulsar.[10] These pulsar planets are believed to have formed from the unusual remnants of the supernova that produced the pulsar, in a second round of planet formation. Otherwise they may be the remaining rocky cores of gas giants that survived the supernova and then decayed into their current orbits.

On October 6, 1995, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the first definitive detection of an exoplanet orbiting an ordinary main-sequence star (51 Pegasi).[11] This discovery, made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, ushered in the modern era of exoplanetary discovery. Technological advances, most notably in high-resolution spectroscopy, led to the detection of many new exoplanets at a rapid rate. These advances allowed astronomers to detect exoplanets indirectly by measuring their gravitational influence on the motion of their parent stars. Additional extrasolar planets were eventually detected by observing the variation in a star's apparent luminosity as an orbiting planet passed in front of it.

Types[change | change source]

Extrasolar planets can have many different forms.

  • They can be gas giants or rocky planets
    • They can possibly be dwarf planets, i.e. planets smaller and less dense than regular planets
  • They can orbit several different types of stars
  • They may support life. One recently discovered exoplanet, Gliese 581g is thought to possibly support life, but the existence of this planet is not yet confirmed.


Nearest[change | change source]

The nearest star with planets is Alpha Centauri. It is 4.3 light years away. Using standard rockets, it would take tens of thousands of years to get there.[12] The nearest star similar to our Sun is Tau Ceti. It has five planets, one of which in the habitable zone, where liquid water may exist.[13][14]

Most Earth-like[change | change source]

Some extrasolar planets might be Earth-like. This means that they have conditions very similar to that of the Earth. Planets are ranked by a formula called the Earth similarity index or ESI for short. The ESI goes from one (most Earth-like) to zero (least Earth-like). For a planet to be habitable it should have an ESI of at least 0.8.[15] For comparison, the four solar terrestrial planets are included in this list.

Name ESI SPV HZD COM ATM Planet type Star Habitability Distance (ly) Status Year of
discovery
Ref
Earth 1.00 0.72 −0.50 −0.31 −0.52 warm terran G mesoplanet 0 Non-exoplanet, inhabited prehistoric
Kepler-438b 0.88 0.88 −0.93 −0.14 −0.73 warm terran M mesoplanet 470 confirmed 2015
Gliese 667 Cc 0.84 0.64 −0.62 −0.15 +0.21 warm terran M mesoplanet 23.6 confirmed 2011 [16]
Kepler-442b 0.83 0.98 −0.72 −0.15 +0.28 warm superterran K mesoplanet 1291.6 confirmed 2015
Kepler-62e 0.83 0.96 −0.70 −0.15 +0.28 warm superterran K mesoplanet 1199.7 confirmed 2013
Kepler-452b 0.83 0.93 −0.61 -0.15 -0.30 warm superterran G mesoplanet 1402.5 confirmed 2015 [17][18][19]
Gliese 832 c 0.81 0.96 −0.72 −0.15 +0.43 warm superterran M mesoplanet 16.1 confirmed 2014
Kepler-283c 0.79 0.85 −0.58 −0.14 +0.69 warm superterran K mesoplanet 1496.8 confirmed 2011
Kepler-436b 0.79 0.33 −0.87 −0.14 +0.47 warm superterran M mesoplanet 1339.4 confirmed 2015
Tau Ceti e 0.78 0.00 −0.92 −0.15 +0.16 warm superterran G mesoplanet 11.9 unconfirmed 2012
Kepler-296f 0.78 0.15 −0.90 −0.14 +0.53 warm superterran M mesoplanet 1089.6 confirmed 2011
Gliese 180 c 0.77 0.42 −0.53 −0.14 +0.64 warm superterran M mesoplanet 39.5 unconfirmed 2014
Gliese 667 Cf 0.77 0.00 -0.22 −0.16 +0.08 warm terran M psychroplanet 23.6 dubious 2013
Gliese 581 g 0.76 1.00 -0.70 −0.15 +0.28 warm superterran M mesoplanet 20.2 dubious 2010
Gliese 163 c 0.75 0.02 −0.96 −0.14 +0.58 warm superterran M mesoplanet 48.9 confirmed 2012
Gliese 180 b 0.75 0.41 −0.88 −0.14 +0.74 warm superterran M mesoplanet 39.5 unconfirmed 2014
HD 40307 g 0.74 0.04 −0.23 −0.14 +0.77 warm superterran K psychroplanet 41.7 confirmed 2012
Kepler-61b 0.73 0.27 −0.88 −0.13 +1.24 warm superterran M mesoplanet 1062.8 confirmed 2013
Kepler-443b 0.73 0.91 −0.49 −0.13 +1.44 warm superterran K mesoplanet 2564.4 confirmed 2015
Gliese 422 b 0.71 0.17 −0.41 −0.13 +1.11 warm megaterran M mesoplanet 41.3 unconfirmed 2014
Kepler-22b 0.71 0.53 −0.64 −0.12 +1.79 warm superterran G mesoplanet 619.4 confirmed 2011
Kepler-440b 0.70 0.00 +0.01 −0.15 +0.38 warm superterran K psychroplanet 706.5 confirmed 2015
Kepler-298d 0.68 0.00 −0.86 −0.11 +2.11 warm superterran K mesoplanet 1545 confirmed 2012 [20]
Kepler-439b 0.68 0.00 −0.99 −0.13 +1.18 warm superterran G thermoplanet 1914.8 confirmed 2015
Kapteyn b 0.67 0.00 +0.08 −0.15 +0.57 warm superterran M psychroplanet 12.7 confirmed 2014
Kepler-62f 0.67 0.00 +0.45 −0.16 +0.19 warm superterran K psychroplanet 1199.7 confirmed 2013
Kepler-186f 0.64 0.00 +0.48 −0.17 −0.26 warm terran M psychroplanet 492 confirmed 2014
Kepler-174d 0.61 0.00 +0.32 −0.13 +1.77 warm superterran K psychroplanet 878.3 confirmed 2011
Gliese 667 Ce 0.60 0.00 +0.51 −0.16 +0.23 warm terran M psychroplanet 23.6 dubious 2013
Gliese 682 c 0.59 0.00 +0.22 −0.14 +1.19 warm superterran M psychroplanet 16.6 unconfirmed 2014
Gliese 581 d 0.53 0.00 +0.78 −0.14 +0.94 warm superterran M hypopsychroplanet 20.2 unconfirmed 2007 [21][22]
Venus 0.78 0.00 −0.93 −0.28 −0.70 warm terran G hyperthermoplanet close to zero non-exoplanet prehistoric
Mars 0.64 0.00 +0.33 −0.13 −1.12 warm subterran G hypopsychroplanet close to zero non-exoplanet prehistoric
Mercury 0.39 0.00 −1.46 −0.52 −1.37 hot mercurian G non-habitable close to zero non-exoplanet prehistoric

Related pages[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]

Search projects[change | change source]

Resources[change | change source]

News[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Staff (2013). "17 billion Earth-size alien planets inhabit Milky Way". Space.com. http://www.space.com/19157-billions-earth-size-alien-planets-aas221.html. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  2. Kopparapu, Ravi kumar (2013). "A revised estimate of the occurrence rate of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones around kepler m-dwarfs". Astrophysical Journal - Letters. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/1303.2649. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Palmer, Jason 2013. Kepler telescope: Earth-sized planets 'number 17bn'. BBC News Science & Environment. [1]
  4. Claven, Whitney (2013). "Billions and billions of planets". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/kepler/news/kepler20130103.html. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  5. Staff (2013). "100 billion alien planets fill our Milky Way galaxy". Space.com. http://www.space.com/19103-milky-way-100-billion-planets.html. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  6. Cassan A et al (2012). "One or more bound planets per Milky Way star from microlensing observations". Nature 481 (7380): 167–169. doi:10.1038/nature10684. PMID 22237108. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7380/full/nature10684.html. Retrieved 2012-01-11.
  7. "Cosmos" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica (15th edition, Chicago, 1991) 16:787:2a. "For his advocacy of an infinity of suns and earths, he was burned at the stake in 1600."
  8. Newton, Isaac; I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman (1999 [1713]). The Principia: A New Translation and Guide. University of California Press. p. 940. ISBN 0-520-20217-1.
  9. Campbell B.; Walker G.A.H.; Yang S. 1988. A search for substellar companions to solar-type stars. Astrophysical Journal 331: 902–921. Bibcode 1988ApJ...331..902C. doi:10.1086/166608
  10. Wolszczan A. & Frail D.A. 1992. A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257+12. Nature 355 (6356): 145–147. doi:10.1038/355145a0
  11. M. Mayor, D. Queloz (1995). "A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star". Nature 378 (6555): 355–359. doi:10.1038/378355a0. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v378/n6555/abs/378355a0.html.
  12. "Travelling to Alpha Centauri". EarthSky.org. http://earthsky.org/space/alpha-centauri-travel-time. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  13. Tau Ceti's planets nearest around single, Sun-like star. BBC News Science & Environment. [2]
  14. Tuomi M. et al [2012]. Signals embedded in the radial velocity noise. Astronomy and Astrophysics (in press). [3]
  15. PHL Habitable planet methods
  16. "Habitable Exoplanets Catalog". Planetary Habitability Laboratory. 2015. http://phl.upr.edu/projects/habitable-exoplanets-catalog. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  17. "NASA’s Kepler Mission Discovers Bigger, Older Cousin to Earth". Press release. 23 July 2015. http://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-kepler-mission-discovers-bigger-older-cousin-to-earth. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  18. http://www.theweathernetwork.com/news/articles/has-nasa-spotted-earths-twin-watch-live-announcement-here/54694
  19. http://cnnhit.com/new/no-kepler-452b-is-not-the-most-earth-like-planet-found-so-far/
  20. "Habitable Exoplanets Catalog: Data of Potentially Habitable Worlds". Planetary Habitability Laboratory. 2015. http://phl.upr.edu/projects/habitable-exoplanets-catalog/data. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  21. http://astronomynow.com/2015/03/09/reanalysis-of-data-suggests-habitable-planet-gj581d-really-does-exist/
  22. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/347/6226/1080.3.abstract