|partially reusable orbital launch vehicle by SpaceX|
|Has use||Orbital launch vehicle|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Cost per launch|
|Diameter||3.7 m (12 ft)|
|Payload to Low Earth orbit (LEO)|
|Payload to Geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO)|
|Payload to Mars transfer orbit|
|Mass||FT: 4 t (8,800 lb)|
|Derivative work||Falcon Heavy|
(v1.1: CRS-7 in-flight)
|Partial failure(s)||1 (v1.0: CRS-1)|
|Notable outcome(s)||1 (FT: Amos-6 pre-flight destruction)|
|Landings||Template:Falcon rocket statistics / Template:Falcon rocket statistics attempts|
|Propellant||LOX / RP-1|
|Propellant||LOX / RP-1|
Falcon 9 is a two-stage rocket. It was designed and manufactured by SpaceX in the United States. Parts of the rocket can be used more than one time. The latest version of the first stage can return to Earth and be flown again many times. Both the first and second stages are powered by SpaceX Merlin engines. They use cryogenic liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene (RP-1) as fuel. Its name comes from the fictional Star Wars spacecraft, the Millennium Falcon. The 9 is for the nine engines of the rocket's first stage. There have been many versions of the rocket. These include v1.0 (2010–2013), v1.1 (2013–2016) and v1.2 Full Thrust (2015–present). It also includes the Falcon 9 Block 5 version.
It also includes the Block 5 Full Thrust version. This version has been used since May 2018. Most rockets can only be used one time. SpaceX has landed Falcon 9 boosters over a hundred times.  The first stages have been used as many as eleven times.
Falcon 9 can carry of up to 22,800 kilograms (50,300 lb) to low Earth orbit (LEO). If fully used, it can carry 8,300 kg (18,300 lb) to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The rocket can carry 5,500 kg (12,100 lb) to GTO when the first stage is recovered. It has a cargo size of ]145 cubic meters of volume The heaviest GTO loads carried have been Intelsat 35e (6,761 kg (14,905 lb)) and Telstar 19V (7,075 kg (15,598 lb)).
In 2008, SpaceX won a Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract in NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. They would take cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) using the Falcon 9 and Dragon capsule. The first mission under this contract launched on 8 October 2012. Falcon 9 can take NASA astronauts to the ISS. It is also certified for the National Security Space Launch program and NASA Launch Services Program as "Category 3". This means it can be used with the most expensive, important and complex NASA missions. Falcon 9 is said to be the world's most advanced space launch vehicle by many sources. As of January 2021, Falcon 9 has the most launches among all U.S. rockets that are currently being used. It is the only U.S. rocket fully certified for transporting humans to the International Space Station. It is also the only commercial rocket to take humans to orbit. On 24 January 2021, Falcon 9 set a new record for the most satellites launched by a single rocket. It carried 143 satellites into orbit.
Five rockets of the version 1.0 design were launched from June 2010 to March 2013. Version 1.1 had fifteen launches from September 2013 to January 2016. The "Full Thrust" version has been used since December 2015. There are many upgrades to this version. The latest Full Thrust variant, Block 5, was introduced in May 2018. It has more thrust, improved landing legs and other minor improvements to help recovery and reuse. The Falcon Heavy version was first flown in February 2018. It has a stronger Falcon 9 first stage as its center core. It also has two added Falcon 9 first stages used as boosters. SpaceX plans to replace Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy with the much larger Starship launch system.
Development history[change | change source]
Conception and funding[change | change source]
In October 2005, SpaceX said it was going to launch Falcon 9 in the first half of 2007. The first launch took place in 2010.
SpaceX spent its own money to create the Falcon 1. Creating the Falcon 9 was faster because NASA helped with the cost. They also said they would buy several commercial flights. This started with money from the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program in 2006. The contract was a Space Act Agreement (SAA) "to develop and demonstrate commercial orbital transportation service". It included NASA paying for of three demonstration flights. The contract was US$278 million to provide development funding for Dragon, Falcon 9, and demonstration launches of Falcon 9 with Dragon. In 2011 other milestones were added, This made the total contract value US$396 million.
NASA became the main user for the vehicle in 2008. They agreed to buy 12 Commercial Resupply Services launches to the International Space Station. The money would be paid after the demonstration missions were completed successfully. The space logistics delivery contract was worth US$1.6 billion for a minimum of 12 missions to carry supplies to and from the International Space Station.
Elon Musk has said that it would have taken longer without the NASA money.
SpaceX has only come this far by building upon the incredible achievements of NASA, having NASA as an anchor tenant for launch, and receiving expert advice and mentorship throughout the development process. SpaceX would like to extend a special thanks to the NASA COTS office for their continued support and guidance throughout this process. The COTS program has demonstrated the power of a true private/public partnership, and we look forward to the exciting endeavors our team will accomplish in the future.
In 2011, SpaceX saidthat Falcon 9 v1.0 costs were about US$300 million. NASA said that costs would have been US$3.6 billion if a traditional cost-plus contract approach had been used. In 2014, SpaceX released total costs for both the Falcon 9 and the Dragon capsule. NASA provided US$396 million. SpaceX provided over US$450 million.
A 2011 NASA report said that it would have cost them about US$4 billion to develop a rocket like the Falcon 9 booster. "A more commercial development" approach might have let the agency to pay only US$1.7 billion".
Congressional testimony by SpaceX in 2017 said that the normal NASA process of setting only a requirement and leaving the details to SpaceX let them make the Falcon 9 rocket at a muchlower cost.
Development[change | change source]
At first, SpaceX wanted to follow the Falcon 1 with a larger capacity vehicle, the Falcon 5. In 2005, SpaceX said it was working on the Falcon 9 instead. They said that they already had a government customer. The Falcon 9 was said to be able of carrying approximately 9,500 kilograms (20,900 lb) to low Earth orbit. They said it would cost US$27 million per flight with a 3.7 metres (12 ft) payload. It would cost US$35 million with a 5.2 metres (17 ft) payload. SpaceX also said a heavy version of the Falcon 9 would have a payload capacity of about 25,000 kilograms (55,000 lb). The Falcon 9 was intended to enable launches to Low-Earth orbit (LEO), Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO), as well as both crew and cargo vehicles to the International Space Station (ISS). The rocket was not full reusable at this time. This caused the price estimates to be higher than expected.
Testing[change | change source]
The original NASA contract called for a demonstration flight of Falcon in September 2008. It also called for all three demonstration missions to be done by September 2009. In February 2008, the plan for the first demo flight was delayed until early 2009. According to Elon Musk, the delay was caused by how cpmplex the work was the rules for launching from Cape Canaveral.
The first test with two engines connected to the first stage was done in January 2008. Other tests led to the Falcon 9 being tested with nine engines. The engine were tested for a full mission length (178 seconds for stage one) in November 2008. In October 2009, the first stage had a successful all-engine test fire for the first time. This was done in McGregor, Texas. In November 2009, SpaceX held the first test of the second stage. This test lasted forty seconds. In January 2010, a full-duration (329 seconds) firing of the Falcon 9 second stage was held. SpaceX scheduled launch date of March 2010.
In February 2010, SpaceX's first flight stack was set up at Space Launch Complex 40, Cape Canaveral. On 9 March 2010, SpaceX was to test-fire the first stage. The test was stopped 2 seconds before firing. This was because of a failure in the system designed to pump high-pressure helium from the launch pad into the first stage. The problem was with the pad and not with the rocket itself. All of Falcon 9's systems leading up to the abort worked as expected. Another test on 13 March 2010 was successful.
Production[change | change source]
In December 2010, SpaceX was making one Falcon 9 (and Dragon spacecraft) every three months. They wanted to double the rate to one every six weeks. By September 2013, SpaceX's manufacturing space had increased to nearly 93,000 square metres (1,000,000 sq ft). The factory had set up to make 40 rocket cores per year. The factory was making one Falcon 9 vehicle per month as of November 2013. The company wanted to increase that to 18 vehicles per year in mid-2014 and 24 per year by the end of 2014. They wanted to be making 40 rocket cores per year by the end of 2015.
These production rates were not achieved by February 2016. The company said that production rate for Falcon 9 cores had only increased to 18 per year. They also said that the number of first stage cores that can be made at one time had doubled from three to six. The rate was expected to grow to 30 cores per year by the end of 2016. Still, By August 2016, SpaceX was working towards a production capacity of 40 cores per year.
Since 2018, SpaceX has usually reused first stages. This has reduced the need for new cores. In 2021, SpaceX had 31 F9 launches. Only two of those used new boosters. They recovered the booster on all but one flight.
Design[change | change source]
The Falcon 9 is a two-stage rocket. it is powered by LOX and RP-1. Both stages have Merlin 1D rocket engines. The first stage has nine that are adapted for use at sea-level. The second stage has one that is adapted for use in a vacuum. The engines uses a pyrophoric mixture of triethylaluminum-triethylborane (TEA-TEB) to ignite the engine. The first stage engines are set in a form SpaceX calls "Octaweb." Many cores have four landing legs at the base of the Octaweb. To control the core while it falls through the atmosphere, SpaceX uses grid fins. They deploy from the vehicle after separation. The legs deploy moments before landing.
The propellant tank walls and domes are made from aluminum–lithium alloy. The second stage tank of a Falcon 9 is a shorter version of the first stage tank. This decreases the cost to make them. The connection between the two stages is a carbon-fiber and aluminum-core structure. The original stage separation system had twelve attachment points. This was which was reduced to three in the v1.1 launcher.
The Falcon 9 uses a payload fairing to protect satellites during launch. The fairing is 13 m (43 ft) long, 5.2 m (17 ft) in diameter, weighs approximately 1,900 kg (4,200 lb). It is made of a carbon fiber skin on an aluminum honeycomb core. Testing of the design was done at NASA's Plum Brook Station facility in spring 2013.
SpaceX uses multiple flight computers. This makes the system less affected by faults. Each Merlin rocket engine is controlled by three computers. Each of these computers has two processors that check each other. The software runs on Linux. It is written in C++. Each stage has its own flight computers. This is in addition to the controllers on each engine. Each engine microcontroller CPU runs on a PowerPC architecture.
The Falcon 9 rocket can lose up to two of the engines and still complete the mission. Each engine creates 854 kN (192,000 lbf) of thrust.
Launcher versions[change | change source]
The Falcon 9 v1.0 flew five times in 2010–2013. The Falcon 9 v1.1 made its first flight in September 2013. The mission carried a very small 500 kg (1,100 lb) payload, the CASSIOPE satellite. It later launched larger things. This included the SES-8 GEO communications satellite. Both Falcon 9 v1.0 and Falcon 9 v1.1 were expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). The Falcon 9 Full Thrust made its first flight in December 2015. The first stage of the Falcon 9 Full Thrust version can be used many times. The current version, known as Falcon 9 Block 5, made its first flight in May 2018.
Pricing[change | change source]
In 2010, the price of a Falcon 9 v1.0 launch was US$49.9 to US$56 million. By 2012, the listed price range had increased to US$54–US$59.5 million. In August 2013, the price for a Falcon 9 v1.1 was US$56.5 million; it was raised to US$61.2 million by June 2014. Since May 2016, the price for a Falcon 9 Full Thrust mission (allowing booster recovery) is US$62 million. Dragon cargo missions to the ISS have an average cost of US$133 million  The DSCOVR mission, for National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), cost US$97 million.
In 2004, Elon Musk said "long term plans call for development of a heavy lift product and even a super-heavy, if there is customer demand. [...] Ultimately, I believe US$500 per pound (US$1100/kg) [of payload delivered to orbit] or less is very achievable". At its 2016 price, a Falcon 9 FT launch costs just over US$2,700/kg ($1,200/lb).
In 2011, Musk estimated that materials needed for the Falcon 9 v1.0 launch cost about US$200,000. The first stage uses 245,620 L (54,030 imp gal; 64,890 US gal) of liquid oxygen and 146,020 L (32,120 imp gal; 38,570 US gal) of RP-1 fuel, while the second stage uses 28,000 L (6,200 imp gal; 7,400 US gal) of liquid oxygen and 17,000 L (3,700 imp gal; 4,500 US gal) of RP-1.
In October 2019, data from NASA showed that the Falcon 9's "base price" of US$62 million per launch would be lowered to US$52 million for flights scheduled in 2021 and beyond.
CNBC reported in April 2020 that the United States Air Force's launches were costing US$95 million This was because of the extra security used. SpaceX executive Christopher Couluris stated that reusing rockets can bring prices even lower, that it "costs US$28 million to launch it, that's with everything".
Gallery[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- "Capabilities & Services (2016)". SpaceX. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- "SpaceX targets 2021 commercial Starship launch". 28 June 2019. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- "Falcon 9 (2015)". SpaceX. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "Falcon 9 (2013)". SpaceX. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- "Falcon 9 Overview (2010)". SpaceX. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- "Air Force requirements will keep SpaceX from landing Falcon 9 booster after GPS launch". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
- Seemangal, Robin (4 May 2018). "SpaceX Test-Fires New Falcon 9 Block 5 Rocket Ahead of Maiden Flight (Updated)". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- de Selding, Peter B. (15 October 2012). "Orbcomm Craft Launched by Falcon 9 Falls out of Orbit". Space News. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
Orbcomm requested that SpaceX carry one of their small satellites (weighing a few hundred pounds, versus Dragon at over 12,000 pounds)... The higher the orbit, the more test data [Orbcomm] can gather, so they requested that we attempt to restart and raise altitude. NASA agreed to allow that, but only on condition that there be substantial propellant reserves, since the orbit would be close to the International Space Station. It is important to appreciate that Orbcomm understood from the beginning that the orbit-raising maneuver was tentative. They accepted that there was a high risk of their satellite remaining at the Dragon insertion orbit...
- Graham, William (21 December 2015). "SpaceX returns to flight with OG2, nails historic core return". NASASpaceFlight. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
The launch also marked the first flight of the Falcon 9 Full Thrust, internally known only as the "Upgraded Falcon 9"
- Graham, Will (29 September 2013). "SpaceX successfully launches debut Falcon 9 v1.1". NASASpaceFlight. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "Detailed Mission Data – Falcon-9 ELV First Flight Demonstration". NASA. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2010. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Falcon 9 (2016)". SpaceX. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 15 July 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- "Falcon 9". SpaceX. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "SpaceX Falcon 9 Upper Stage Engine Successfully Completes Full Mission Duration Firing" (Press release). SpaceX. 10 March 2009. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- Malik, Tariq (19 January 2017). "These SpaceX Rocket Landing Photos Are Simply Jaw-Dropping". Space.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- Thomas, Rachael L. "SpaceX's rockets and spacecraft have really cool names. But what do they mean?". Florida Today. Archived from the original on 25 June 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "SpaceX on Twitter". 21 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
- Sesnic, Trevor (18 December 2021). "SpaceX Falcon 9 completes rare 53 degree inclination launch from Vandenberg". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
- Barbara Opall-Rome (12 October 2015). "IAI Develops Small, Electric-Powered COMSAT". DefenseNews. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
At 5.3 tons, Amos-6 is the largest communications satellite ever built by IAI. Scheduled for launch in early 2016 from Cape Canaveral aboard a Space-X Falcon 9 launcher, Amos-6 will replace Amos-2, which is nearing the end of its 16-year life.
- Amos, Jonathan (8 October 2012). "SpaceX lifts off with ISS cargo". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- Kucinski, William. "All four NSSL launch vehicle developers say they'll be ready in 2021". Sae Mobilus. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- Wall, Mike (9 November 2018). "SpaceX's Falcon 9 Rocket Certified to Launch NASA's Most Precious Science Missions". Space.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- Light, Larry. "SpaceX, The Pursuit Of Quality And The Law Of The Diagonal". Forbes. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
"SpaceX designs, manufactures, and launches the world's most advanced rockets and spacecraft".
- Arevalo, Evelyn. "NASA modified SpaceX contract to allow the reuse of previously-flown Falcon 9 rockets". Tesmanian. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
"The company has designed and manufactured some of the world's most advanced rockets".
- "SpaceX - Reusable Rockets". The Index Project. Archived from the original on 14 May 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy are the worlds most advanced rockets - and they're reusable!
- Cawley, James (10 November 2020). "NASA and SpaceX Complete Certification of First Human-Rated Commercial Space System". NASA. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- Berger, Eric (22 April 2020). "The Falcon 9 just became America's workhorse rocket". Arstechnica. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- Wall, Mike (4 June 2020). "Happy birthday, Falcon 9! SpaceX's workhorse rocket debuted 10 years ago today". Space.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- "NASA and SpaceX launch astronauts into new era of private spaceflight". 30 May 2020. Archived from the original on 12 December 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- Wattles, Jackie. "SpaceX launches 143 satellites on one rocket in record-setting mission". CNN. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
- Cooper, Ben (25 April 2018). "Rocket Launch Viewing Guide for Cape Canaveral". launchphotography.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- Jeff Foust (29 September 2017). "Musk unveils revised version of giant interplanetary launch system Archived 8 October 2017 at Archive-It". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "SpaceX reveals Falcon 1 Halloween date". NASASpaceflight. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- David J. Frankel (26 April 2010). "Minutes of the NAC Commercial Space Committee" (PDF). NASA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "COTS 2006 Demo Competition". NASA. 18 January 2006. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX)". NASA. 24 October 2016. Archived from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Statement of William H. Gerstenmaier Associate Administrator for Space Operations before the Committee on Science, Space and Technology Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics U.S. House of Representatives" (PDF). U.S. House of Representatives. 26 May 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2016. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- SpaceX (15 December 2010). "SpaceX's Dragon spacecraft successfully re-enters from orbit" (Press release). Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Money, Stewart (12 March 2012). "Competition and the future of the EELV program (part 2)". The Space Review. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
"The government is the necessary anchor tenant for commercial cargo, but it's not sufficient to build a new economic ecosystem", says Scott Hubbard, an aeronautics researcher at Stanford University in California and former director of NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California.
- SpaceX (23 December 2008). "NASA selects SpaceX's Falcon 9 booster and Dragon spacecraft for cargo resupply" (Press release). Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
- "THE FACTS ABOUT SPACEX COSTS". spacex.com. 4 May 2011. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013.
- "Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle NAFCOM Cost Estimates" (PDF). nasa.gov. August 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Shotwell, Gwynne (4 June 2014). Discussion with Gwynne Shotwell, President and COO, SpaceX. Atlantic Council. Event occurs at 12:20–13:10. Archived from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
"NASA ultimately gave us about $396 million; SpaceX put in over $450 million ... [for an] EELV-class launch vehicle ... as well as a capsule".
- "SpaceX goes there—seeks government funds for deep space" Archived 15 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine Ars Technica 13 July 2017
- David, Leonard. "SpaceX tackles reusable heavy launch vehicle". MSNBC. NBC News. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "SpaceX Announces the Falcon 9 Fully Reusable Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle" (Press release). SpaceX. 8 September 2005. Archived from the original on 15 August 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
- "Space Act Agreement between NASA and Space Exploration Technologies, Inc., for Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Demonstration" (PDF). NASA. 30 May 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Coppinger, Rob (27 February 2008). "SpaceX Falcon 9 maiden flight delayed by six months to late Q1 2009". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- "SpaceX Conducts First Multi-Engine Firing of Falcon 9 Rocket" (Press release). SpaceX. 18 January 2008. Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- "SpaceX successfully conducts full mission-length firing of its Falcon 9 launch vehicle" (Press release). SpaceX. 23 November 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
- "Merlin Vacuum Engine Test". Youtube. 12 November 2010. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- "Updates". SpaceX. 25 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- Kremer, Ken (13 March 2010). "Successful Engine Test Firing for SpaceX Inaugural Falcon 9". Universe Today. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- Denise Chow (8 December 2010). "Q & A with SpaceX CEO Elon Musk: Master of Private Space Dragons". Space.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- "Production at SpaceX". SpaceX. 24 September 2013. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- Svitak, Amy (24 November 2013). "Musk: Falcon 9 Will Capture Market Share". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 28 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
SpaceX is currently producing one vehicle per month, but that number is expected to increase to '18 per year in the next couple of quarters'. By the end of 2014, she says SpaceX will produce 24 launch vehicles per year.
- Amos, Jonathan (3 December 2013). "SpaceX launches SES commercial TV satellite for Asia". BBC. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
The commercial market for launching telecoms spacecraft is tightly contested, but has become dominated by just a few companies – notably, Europe's Arianespace, which flies the Ariane 5, and International Launch Services (ILS), which markets Russia's Proton vehicle. SpaceX is promising to substantially undercut the existing players on price, and SES, the world's second-largest telecoms satellite operator, believes the incumbents had better take note of the California company's capability.
- Svitak, Amy (10 March 2014). "SpaceX Says Falcon 9 To Compete For EELV This Year". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
Within a year, we need to get it from where it is right now, which is about a rocket core every four weeks, to a rocket core every two weeks... By the end of 2015, says SpaceX president Gwynne Shotwell, the company plans to ratchet up production to 40 cores per year.
- Foust, Jeff (4 February 2016). "SpaceX seeks to accelerate Falcon 9 production and launch rates this year". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- Martinez, Domingo (August 2016). "Countdown to Liftoff". Texas Monthly. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Mission Status Center, June 2, 2010, 19:05 UTC Archived 30 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, SpaceflightNow, accessed 2010-06-02, Quotation: "The flanges will link the rocket with ground storage tanks containing liquid oxygen, kerosene fuel, helium, gaserous nitrogen and the first stage ignitor source called triethylaluminum-triethylborane, better known as TEA-TAB".
- "Octaweb". SpaceX News. 12 April 2013. Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Landing Legs". SpaceX News. 12 April 2013. Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
The Falcon Heavy first stage center core and boosters each carry landing legs, which will land each core safely on Earth after takeoff.
- Kremer, Ken (27 January 2015). "Falcon Heavy Rocket Launch and Booster Recovery Featured in Cool New SpaceX Animation". Universe Today. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- Simberg, Rand (8 February 2012). "Elon Musk on SpaceX's Reusable Rocket Plans". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 24 June 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- Klotz, Irene (6 September 2013). "Musk Says SpaceX Being "Extremely Paranoid" as It Readies for Falcon 9's California Debut". Space News. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle Information". Spaceflight101. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
- Mangels, John (25 May 2013). "NASA's Plum Brook Station tests rocket fairing for SpaceX". Cleveland Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Svitak, Amy (18 November 2012). "Dragon's "Radiation-Tolerant" Design". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- "Schedule". Archived from the original on 25 February 2015.
- "Falcon User's Guide" (PDF). SpaceX. April 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
- Chris Forrester (2016). Beyond Frontiers. Broadgate Publications. p. 12.
- "Falcon 9 Overview (2012)". SpaceX. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- "Capabilities & Services (2013)". SpaceX. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 August 2013.
- "Capabilities & Services (2014)". SpaceX. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014.
- "Why the US can beat China: the facts about SpaceX costs". 4 May 2011. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013.
- "SpaceX books first two launches with U.S. military". 12 December 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
- Testimony of Elon Musk (5 May 2004). "Space Shuttle and the Future of Space Launch Vehicles". U.S. Senate. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021. Retrieved 4 March 2010. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "National Press Club: The Future of Human Spaceflight" (Press release). c-span.org. 14 January 2012. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013.
- "Environmental Assessment, Boost-Back and Landing of the Falcon 9 First Stage at SLC-4 West" (PDF). SpaceX. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2018. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Forrester, Chris (8 October 2019). "SpaceX reduces launch costs". Advanced Television. Archived from the original on 8 October 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- "Elon MUSK Breaks Doen The Cost Of Rwusabke Rockets". Archived from the original on 23 August 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
Other Websites[change | change source]
- Falcon 9 official page
- SAOCOM 1B | Launch and Landing
- Test firing of two Merlin 1C engines connected to Falcon 9 first stage, Movie 1, Movie 2 (18 January 2008)
- Press release announcing design (9 September 2005)
- SpaceX hopes to supply ISS with new Falcon 9 heavy launcher (Flight International, 13 September 2005)
- SpaceX launches Falcon 9, With A Customer Archived 11 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine (Defense Industry Daily, 15 September 2005)