Four Heavenly Kings

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The Four Heavenly Kings have been represented from early Buddhist art in India until today in East Asia. There are two types of distinctive iconography of the deities: a king-like appearance in India and Southeast Asia and a warrior-like appearance in Central Asia and East Asia.[1]

  1. Vaisravana (he who hears everything) NORTH
  2. Virūdhaka (he who causes the growth) SOUTH
  3. Dhritarāshtra (he who upholds the realm) EAST
  4. Virūpāksha (he who sees all) WEST

References[change | change source]

  1. Shim, yeoung shin (2013-01-01). "Four Heavenly Kings: Iconography and Symbolism seen Through Literary Evidence and Imagery". Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations.