The Four Heavenly Kings have been represented from early Buddhist art in India until today in East Asia. There are two types of distinctive iconography of the deities: a king-like appearance in India and Southeast Asia and a warrior-like appearance in Central Asia and East Asia.
- Vaisravana (he who hears everything) NORTH
- Virūdhaka (he who causes the growth) SOUTH
- Dhritarāshtra (he who upholds the realm) EAST
- Virūpāksha (he who sees all) WEST
References[change | change source]
- Shim, yeoung shin (2013-01-01). "Four Heavenly Kings: Iconography and Symbolism seen Through Literary Evidence and Imagery". Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations.