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Georgia (country)

Coordinates: 42°00′N 43°30′E / 42.000°N 43.500°E / 42.000; 43.500
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Georgian SSR)

42°00′N 43°30′E / 42.000°N 43.500°E / 42.000; 43.500

საქართველო  (Georgian)
ძალა ერთობაშია
Dzala ertobashia
"Strength is in Unity"
Georgian territory under central control in dark green; uncontrolled territory in light green
Georgian territory under central control in dark green; uncontrolled territory in light green
and largest city
41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717°N 44.783°E / 41.717; 44.783
Official languagesGeorgian (nationwide)
Abkhaz (Abkhazian AR)[1][2]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Salome Zourabichvili
Irakli Kobakhidze
Shalva Papuashvili
Establishment history
• Colchis and Iberia
13th c. BC – 580 AD

12 September 1801

26 May 1918
25 February 1921
• Independence from the Soviet Union
 • Declared
 • Finalized

9 April 1991
25 December 1991
24 August 1995
• Total
69,700 km2 (26,900 sq mi) (119th)
• 2022 estimate
Neutral decrease 3,688,647[a][4]
4,012,104[b] (128th)
• 2014 census
Neutral decrease 3,713,804[a][5]
• Density
57.6/km2 (149.2/sq mi) (137th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $61.58 billion[a][6] (110th)
• Per capita
Increase $16,590[a][6] (83rd)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $17.85 billion[a][6] (124th)
• Per capita
Increase $4,808[a][6] (125th)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 34.5[a][7]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.812[a][8]
very high · 61st
CurrencyGeorgian lari (₾) (GEL)
Time zoneUTC+4 (Georgia Time GET)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+995
ISO 3166 codeGE
Internet TLD.ge, .გე
  1. ^ Data not including occupied territories.
  2. ^ Data including occupied territories.

Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of West Asia and Eastern Europe. It is situated on the coast of the Black Sea and borders Russia to the north, Turkey and Armenia to the south, and Azerbaijan to the southeast. It is largely encircled by the Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountain ranges. During 1918–1921, and 1991–1995 its full name was the Republic of Georgia. Since 1995 it is Georgia, as written in the Constitution. It was part of the Russian Empire and later Soviet Union between 1921 and 1991, but now it is an independent republic. The capital city is Tbilisi. Almost 4 million people live there.

History[change | change source]

The Georgians are an ancient people. Their capital Tbilisi was founded around AD 400, by the king Vakhtang I of Iberia. Western Georgia was part of the Roman Empire before then. The Arabs captured it in 635 AD. The culture continued and flourished through trade.

In the 900s Arab influence diminished in Caucasus. In 1008 Kingdom of Georgia was formed. It was the major country in the region until the Mongol Empire invaded it in 1223. Georgia was part of the Mongol Empire for a century on and off until 1334, when King Giorgi V took over. In the 1400s Georgia dissolved into several principalities. In the 1500s the Persians invaded Eastern Georgia four times from 1541 to 1544. In 1555 the Kings of Kartli ruled through the will of the Persian Shahs.

In 1783 The treaty of Georgievsk was signed between Catherine the Great of Russia and King Heraclius II, giving Russia the power to protect Georgia. Then, in 1798 the Persians burned Tbilisi to the ground.

From 1811 to 1918 Georgia was under the Tsar of Russia. Their culture survived intact. From 1918 to 1921 Georgia was independent, and then was part of the Soviet Union.

In 1991 most people from Georgia voted to be a free nation again, and Georgia declared their independence from the Soviet Union. Newly established Republic of Georgia saw bloody Civil War resulting in downfall of first-ever president of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Georgia was also involved in War in Abkhazia. There was a rough patch between 1994 and 1995 when the economy was poor, although Georgia saw significant improvements in last few years. Now Georgia is applying to NATO and European Union.

In 2008 Georgia was involved in the 2008 South Ossetia war.

Geography[change | change source]

A map of Georgia

Georgia is next to the countries of Russia, Turkey, Armenia and Azerbaijan. It also has a coast on the Black Sea. It is at the edge of Europe and Asia.

Georgia has many mountains. Its highest point is 5,193 m above sea level. The mountains running through Georgia are called the Caucasus Mountains.

The highest mountain in Georgia is Mount Shkhara at 5,193 m. The coastline of Georgia is 310 km long. Georgia has about 25,000 rivers. The largest river is the Mtkvari.

Divisions[change | change source]

Map of Georgia showing the occupied territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia)

Georgia is divided into 9 regions, 1 city, and 2 autonomous republics. These in turn are divided into 67 districts and 12 self-governing cities.[10]

The region of Abkhazia declared independence in 1999.[11] South Ossetia is officially known by Georgia as the Tskinvali region. Georgia considers both regions as occupied by Russia.[12]

Region Centre Area (km2) Population[5] Density
Abkhazia Sokhumi 8,660 242,862est 28.04
Adjara Batumi 2,880 333,953 115.95
Guria Ozurgeti 2,033 113,350 55.75
Imereti Kutaisi 6,475 533,906 82.45
Kakheti Telavi 11,311 318,583 28.16
Kvemo Kartli Rustavi 6,072 423,986 69.82
Mtskheta-Mtianeti Mtskheta 6,786 94,573 13.93
Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti Ambrolauri 4,990 32,089 6.43
Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti Zugdidi 7,440 330,761 44.45
Samtskhe-Javakheti Akhaltsikhe 6,413 160,504 25.02
Shida Kartli Gori 5,729 300,382est 52.43
Tbilisi Tbilisi 720 1,108,717 1,539.88

Culture[change | change source]

About 4 million people live in Georgia. About 1.2 million live in Tbilisi. People from Georgia are called Georgians. Most of them speak Georgian as their first language, though some people also speak Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian or other languages.

Georgians use three alphabets/scripts, Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli, with Asomtavruli being the very first Georgian Script, which was said to be invented by King Pharnavaz I of Iberia

The most famous person to have come from Georgia is Josef Stalin.

Most Georgians are Christians, but there are some Muslims and Jews as well.

The currency of Georgia is called the lari.

World War II urban legend rumor of unconfirmed and supposed invasion and occupation[change | change source]

It has been rumored on some online wensites that during the Nazi German invasion of the Caucausus in 1942, obviously during World War II, the German military army troops had reached as far and invaded and occupied some of the northern parts of Georgian SFSR. This simply is a urban legend story, and this is currently unknown if if is true or not. This unconfirmed rumor of unconfirmed invasion and occupation, has not really been studied or searched by historians, scholars, or other peoples. According to some English Wikipedia article and page on World War II, it states that even though German army briefly reached, invaded, and occupied the Caucausus areas of Russia, reaching towns and cities such as Yessentuki, Pyatigorsk, Nalchik, and Alagir, the German army never reached Georgian SFSR. It is unknown how accurate this statement on Wikipedia about Georgian SFSR is. Alagir, the Russian city, is known to be the southernmost known or proven point of Nazi German occupation, in the Caucausus area, whose brief occupation (from November to December 1942) is known. However, still, it is unknown for sure if the Germans plausibly went with their occupation in areas farther more southern and thus beyond Alagir. Besides, the Russian city of Vladikavkaz, just slightly farther in the south than Alagir, by several miles, is known to be never captured by the Nazi German army, despite their uncessful attempts, because they were fortunately and quickly repelled back north by the Soviet Bolshevik Red Army, and were driven back north from the city by several miles. The Germans never succesfully captured Vladikavkaz. It is plausible that the Germans did capture at least some parts in the Caucausus areas of Russia beyond Alagir, and/or even went to some northern parts in Georgian SFSR, however it is unknown for sure how accurate this plausibly can be, and if the supposed occupation beyond Alagir and even in some northern parts of Georgian SFSR, can ever be plausibly confirmed with certainty. Currently, it is unknown if this plausibly will ever be confirmed or not, for now it is unknown and remains unknown.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Article 8", Constitution of Georgia. In Abkhazian AR, also Abkhazian.
  2. "Constitution of Georgia" (PDF). Parliament of Georgia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2017.
  3. "საქართველოს მოსახლეობის საყოველთაო აღწერის საბოლოო შედეგები" (PDF). National Statistics Office of Georgia. 28 April 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  4. "Demographic Portal". Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "2014 General Population Census Main Results General Information — National Statistics Office of Georgia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  7. "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Georgia". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  8. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  9. "Living conditions". GeoStat. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  10. "Registry of Municipalities". National Agency of Public Registry. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  11. "Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC News. 8 February 2011. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  12. Abkhazia, S. Ossetia Formally Declared Occupied Territory. Archived 3 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Civil Georgia. 28 August 2008.

Other websites[change | change source]