Glass ceiling

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A chart illustrating the differences in earnings between men and women of the same educational level (USA 2006) [needs update]

A glass ceiling is a metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that prevents a people, usually women, from having high ranks in companies, schools, etc.[1]

The metaphor was first made by feminists in reference to barriers in the careers of high-achieving women.[2][3] In the US, the concept is sometimes extended to refer to minorities based not on gender.[2][4] Minority women in white-majority countries often find the most difficulty in "breaking the glass ceiling" because they are both women and people of color, two types of people who were not liked in the past.[5] East Asian and East Asian American news outlets have made a parody, the term "bamboo ceiling". It tries to show discrimination against East Asians.[6][7]

Within the same concepts of the other terms surrounding the workplace, there are similar terms extra rules about women and their roles within organizations and how they deal with their maternal duties. These "Invisible Barriers" function as metaphors to describe the extra obstacles that women have, usually when trying to become better in their career and often while trying to better their lives outside their work.[8]

"A glass ceiling" represents a barrier that stops women from moving toward the top of a hierarchical corporation. Those women are not allowed to get promotion, especially to the very high rankings, within their corporation. In the last twenty years, the women who have been working in in industries and organizations have rarely been in the high ranks.

References[change | change source]

  1. Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. Solid Investments: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital. Archived 2014-11-08 at the Wayback Machine Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, November 1995, p. 13-15.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. Good for Business: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital. Archived 2014-08-10 at the Wayback Machine Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, March 1995.
  3. Wiley, John (2012). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies. Vol. 5. John Wiley and Sons.
  4., The Washington Times. "Hillary Clinton: 'As a white person,' I have to discuss racism 'every chance I get'".
  5. "Demarginalising the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Anti-discrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Anti-racist Politics" by Kimberlé Crenshaw in Framing Intersectionality, edited by Helma Lutz et al. (Ashgate, 2011).
  6. Hyun, Jane (2005). Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling: Career Strategies for Asians. New York: HarperBusiness.
  7. "Top 10 Numbers that Show Why Pay Equity Matters to Asian American Women and Their Families". name. Retrieved 2016-05-03.
  8. Smith, Paul; Caputi, Peter (2012). "A Maze of Metaphors". Faculty of Health and Behavioral Sciences. 27: 436–448. doi:10.1108/17542411211273432 – via University of Wollongong Research Online.