Hadesarchaea

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Hadesarchaea
Scientific classification
Domain:
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Hadesarchaeota
Class:
Hadesarchaea
Order:
Hadesarchaeales
Family:
Hadesarchaeacaceae
Genus:
Hadesararchaeum
Type species
Ca. Hadesararchaeum tengchongensis Ca. Methanourarchaum thermotelluricum

Hadesarchaea are very small living things. They are thermophile Archaea that live in very hot places underground. People have found them in sand at the bottom of the ocean, deep mines, hot springs, and other places underground.[1][2][3][4][5]

Name[change | change source]

Hadesarchaea were first called the South-African Gold Mine Miscellaneous Euryarchaeal Group (SAGMEG) because they were found in a gold mine in South Africa.[6][7] They were renamed Hadesarchaea in 2016 (Hades was the Greek god who ruled the land of the dead).[1]

Genome[change | change source]

In 2016, scientists used a method called shotgun sequencing to make a model of the Hadesarchaea genome.[1] A genome is all the genes in an living thing and the other pieces of DNA and RNA that help them work. The Hadesarchaea genome is about 1.5 Megabase pairs in size,[1] which is about 0.5 Mbp smaller than most other Archaea.[8] The scientists think the small genome is how the Hadesarchaea can stay alive with only a little to eat.[1]

Scientists believe Hadesarchaea came from an ancestor that used methane as food.[9]

Ecology[change | change source]

The first Hadesarchaea that people found were in a mine in South Africa about 3 km (2 mi) under the surface of the Earth.[6] They do not need oxygen or light to live.[8][10][11] They were later also found in the White Oak River estuary in North Carolina, a place where a river meets the ocean, and in Yellowstone National Park's Lower Culex Basin.[12] These areas are hot, 70 °C (158 °F), and are so alkaline that they would destroy most living things.[12] Other scientists looked through the soil near old mines in East Harz, Germany and think they may have found pieces of 16S rRNA that could be from Hadesarchaea or their close relatives.[13]

Hadesarchaea are the only archaea that can turn carbon monoxide and water into carbon dioxide and oxygen. When they do this, the reaction gives off hydrogen. Scientists looked at more information about the Hadesarchaea genome and believe they have genes that let them put carbon atoms into other molecules and make methane.[14] [15] Other scientists think Hadesarchaea may be able to use sugar and amino acids as fuel and change nitrite into ammonium.[1][3] Scientists think Hadesarchaea help in geochemical processes.[1]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Baker, Brett J.; Saw, Jimmy H.; Lind, Anders E.; Lazar, Cassandra Sara; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Teske, Andreas P.; Ettema, Thijs J.G. (February 16, 2016). "Genomic inference of the metabolism of cosmopolitan subsurface Archaea, Hadesarchaea". Nature Microbiology. 1 (3): 16002. doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.2. Retrieved February 25, 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. Parkes, R. John; Webster, Gordon; Cragg, Barry A.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Newberry, Carole J.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Kallmeyer, Jens; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Aiello, Ivano W.; Fry, John C. (July 2007). "Deep sub-seafloor prokaryotes stimulated at interfaces over geological time". Nature. 436 (7049): 390–394. doi:10.1038/nature03796. ISSN 0028-0836.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Biddle, J. F.; Lipp, J. S.; Lever, M. A.; Lloyd, K. G.; Sorensen, K. B.; Anderson, R.; Fredricks, H. F.; Elvert, M.; Kelly, T. J.; Schrag, D. P.; Sogin, M. L. (2006-02-27). "Heterotrophic Archaea dominate sedimentary subsurface ecosystems off Peru". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (10): 3846–3851. doi:10.1073/pnas.0600035103. ISSN 0027-8424.
  4. Purkamo, Lotta; Bomberg, Malin; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Salavirta, Heikki; Nyyssönen, Mari; Nuppunen-Puputti, Maija; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Itävaara, Merja (2016-05-30). "Microbial co-occurrence patterns in deep Precambrian bedrock fracture fluids". Biogeosciences. 13 (10): 3091–3108. doi:10.5194/bg-13-3091-2016. ISSN 1726-4189.
  5. Bomberg, Malin; Nyyssönen, Mari; Pitkänen, Petteri; Lehtinen, Anne; Itävaara, Merja (2015). "Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland". BioMed Research International. 2015: 1–17. doi:10.1155/2015/979530. ISSN 2314-6133.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ettema, Thijs (February 17, 2016). "New paper about the Hadesarchaea published!". Ettema Lab. Retrieved February 25, 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. Takai, K.; Moser, D. P.; DeFlaun, M.; Onstott, T. C.; Fredrickson, J. K. (2001-12-01). "Archaeal Diversity in Waters from Deep South African Gold Mines". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67 (12): 5750–5760. doi:10.1128/aem.67.21.5750-5760.2001. ISSN 0099-2240.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Hadesarchaea: a New Archaeal Class of Cosmopolitan Deep Microbes". Deep Carbon Observatory. February 18, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. Evans, Paul N.; Boyd, Joel A.; Leu, Andy O.; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Parks, Donovan H.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W. (April 2019). "An evolving view of methane metabolism in the Archaea". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 17 (4): 219–232. doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0136-7. ISSN 1740-1534.
  10. Uppsala University (February 15, 2016). "Scientists discover new microbes that thrive deep in the earth". Press release. http://www.uu.se/en/media/press-releases/press-release/?id=3120&area=3,8&typ=pm&lang=en. Retrieved February 25, 2016. 
  11. "Underworld microbes shock scientists: Mystery of Hadesarchaea". India Today. New Delhi. February 17, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  12. 12.0 12.1 Atherton, Matt (February 15, 2016). "God of the underworld microbes Hadesarchaea discovered living on toxic gas deep below Yellowstone hot springs". IB Times. Retrieved February 25, 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  13. Köhler, J. Michael; Kalensee, Franziska; Cao, Jialan; Günther, P. Mike (2019-07-09). "Hadesarchaea and other extremophile bacteria from ancient mining areas of the East Harz region (Germany) suggest an ecological long-term memory of soil". SN Applied Sciences. 1 (8): 839. doi:10.1007/s42452-019-0874-9. ISSN 2523-3971.
  14. Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Wang, Yu-Lin; Evans, Paul N.; Qu, Yan-Ni; Goh, Kian Mau; Rao, Yang-Zhi; Qi, Yan-Ling; Li, Yu-Xian; Huang, Min-Jun; Jiao, Jian-Yu; Chen, Ya-Ting (2019-10-08). "Insights into the ecological roles and evolution of methyl-coenzyme M reductase-containing hot spring Archaea". Nature Communications. 10 (1). doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12574-y. ISSN 2041-1723.
  15. Wang, Yinzhao; Wegener, Gunter; Hou, Jialin; Wang, Fengping; Xiao, Xiang (2019-03-04). "Expanding anaerobic alkane metabolism in the domain of Archaea". Nature Microbiology. 4 (4): 595–602. doi:10.1038/s41564-019-0364-2. ISSN 2058-5276.