Help:IPA/Oghuz languages

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Turkish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-tr}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

For a more in-depth coverage of the sounds of Turkish, see Turkish phonology.

Consonants
IPA Example English
approximation
b audio speaker iconbebek about
β vücut[1] like vase, but with both lips
c audio speaker iconşekil[2] skew
d audio speaker iconmadde ado
audio speaker iconocak jump
f far food
ɡ gam[2] ago
ɟ audio speaker icongerçek[2] argue
h audio speaker iconanahtar home
j audio speaker iconhayat, düğün[3] yes
k audio speaker iconkabak[2] score
l audio speaker iconbilinç late
ɫ audio speaker iconkulak[2] tail
m audio speaker iconcuma much
n audio speaker iconnesne not
ɲ engin[4] canyon
ŋ yangın[5] wing
p audio speaker iconpazar span
ɾ audio speaker iconanahtarlar AmE pretty or Scottish r
s audio speaker iconsinek send
ʃ audio speaker iconkişi shoe
t audio speaker iconTürkçe stable
audio speaker iconçivi change
v audio speaker iconçivi[1] vase
z audio speaker iconpazar zone
ʒ jilet leisure
Vowels
IPA Example English
approximation
a audio speaker iconkabak father
æ audio speaker iconerkek[6] cat
e audio speaker iconerkek bed
i audio speaker iconçivi creek
o audio speaker icontokmak story
œ audio speaker iconözgürlük somewhat like bird
u audio speaker iconruh soup
ɯ audio speaker iconkış somewhat like roses
y audio speaker iconTürkçe somewhat like cue
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples
ˈ torbalı [toɾbaˈɫɯ] 'with bag'
Torbalı [ˈtoɾbaɫɯ] (a place name)[7]
ː â, î, û[8], ğ[3] lan audio speaker icon[oːˈɫan] 'boy'

Notes[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 /v/ surfaces as [β] when either preceded or followed by a rounded vowel (but not when intervocalic).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 [c~k], [ɟ~ɡ], and [l~ɫ] contrast only in loanwords before ⟨â, û⟩ vs. ⟨a, u⟩. In native words, [c, ɟ, l] occur before front vowels ([æ, e, i, œ, y]) and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur before back vowels ([a, o, u, ɯ]); word-finally or preconsonantally, [c, ɟ, l] occur after front vowels and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur after back vowels.
  3. 3.0 3.1 In Turkish, the letter ⟨ğ⟩ (also called yumuşak g, 'soft g') indicates a number of different sounds, depending on context:
    • in syllable-initial positions, is silent and indicates a syllable break, for example: ağır ('heavy') [aˈɯɾ], ağa ('Agha') [aˈa].
    • in other positions, indicates the lengthening of the preceding vowel, for example: dağ ('mountain') [daː], doğru ('true') [doːɾu].
      • if the lengthened vowel is /e/, it sounds like [j], for example: eğlence ('fun') [ejlænˈdʒe]
    • in proper names where it may appear following a consonant, it is treated as a ⟨g⟩, for example: Olğun [oɫˈɡun]
  4. [ɲ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɟ] and [c].
  5. [ŋ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɡ] and [k].
  6. Allophone of /e/ before liquids [l, m, n, ɾ] in coda/syllable-final position, and in the suffix -mez
  7. In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
  8. Düzeltme işareti (Turkish for "correction mark") ⟨^⟩ is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter ⟨k⟩ represents [c], the letter ⟨g⟩ represents [ɟ] or the letter ⟨l⟩ represents [l] before back vowels [a] and [u].
    Yet the düzeltme işareti is used primarily to indicate palatalization, instead of length. For example, the word katil means "murder" when it is pronounced as [kaˈtil], but it means "killer" when it is pronounced as [kaːˈtil]. The letter ⟨a⟩ is left unmarked even if it is long because the sound /k/ does not become /c/ in this case.
    ⟨î⟩ is an exception, as it indicates only the vowel length.