Hudson was trying to find a northwest passage to Cathay (present day China). He tried twice before he found it. Hudson discovered the Hudson Bay and Hudson River in North America. He claimed the Hudson Bay for England along with other pieces of land. He was working for the Dutch when he found the Hudson River. He found it in 1609 when he was looking for a way to get from North America to Asia by water. This was named the Northwest Passage.
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