Henry IV of England
|King of England; Lord of Ireland|
16th century painting of Henry IV
|Reign||30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413|
|Coronation||13 October 1399|
|Born||3 April 1366|
Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire
|Died||20 March 1413 (aged 46)|
|Mary de Bohun|
m. 1369; dec. 1394
Joanna of Navarre
m. 1403; wid. 1413
Thomas, Duke of Clarence
John, Duke of Bedford
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
Blanche, Electorial Princess Palatine
Philippa, Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
|House||House of Lancaster|
|Father||John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster|
|Mother||Blanche of Lancaster|
Rise to power[change | change source]
Henry and Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk argued in 1398. King Richard ordered Henry to live outside England for ten years (with the approval of Henry's father, John of Gaunt) but Thomas de Mowbray was exiled from England for life.
The next year John of Gaunt died, and Richard would not allow Henry to inherit Gaunt's land. Instead, Henry had to ask for the lands from Richard.
With Arundel as his advisor, Henry Bolingbroke began a military campaign, took land from those who opposed him and ordering his soldiers to destroy much of Cheshire.
Henry gained enough power and support to have himself declared King Henry IV. He sent King Richard to prison (who mysteriously died in prison) and by-passing Richard’s seven-year-old heir presumptive Edmund de Mortimer.
Henry was crowned on 13 October 1399. It was the first time since the Norman Conquest in 1066 that the monarch made a public speech in English. Henry consulted with Parliament frequently, but was sometimes at odds with them, especially over religious matters. On Arundel's advice, Henry was the first English king to allow the burning of heretics, mainly to suppress the Lollard movement.