Hindi

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Hindi
मानक हिन्दी Mānak Hindī
Hindi.svg
The word "Hindi" in Devanagari script
Pronunciation /maːn̪ək ɦin̪d̪iː/
Native to India
Significant communities in South Africa, Nepal
Native speakers 180 million[1]  (1991)
Total, including Urdu: 490 million[2]
Language family
Writing system Devanagari
Hindi Braille
Official status
Official language in  India
Regulated by Central Hindi Directorate (India)[4]
Language codes
ISO 639-1 hi
ISO 639-2 hin
ISO 639-3 hin
Linguist List hin-hin
Linguasphere 59-AAF-qf
Brahmi script - Hindi Language

Hindi is the most commonly spoken language in India. It is the fifth most spoken language in the world with about 182 million native speakers in 1998. The Devanāgarī script is used to write Hindi.

Hindi is widely written, spoken and understood in North India and most other places in India. In 1997, a survey found that 66% of Indians can speak Hindi. The most common form of Hindi is known as Hindustani. It has taken words from the Dravidian languages of South India, as well as the Persian, Arabic, Turkish, English, and Portuguese languages.[source?] The Hindustani language is almost the same as Urdu, the most commonly spoken language in Pakistan; the difference is that Urdu is written in the Arabic alphabet. Hindi and Urdu were considered the same language until Pakistan split away from India. However, to this day, both languages are mutually intelligible, meaning that speakers of two different languages can understand each other without knowing the other language.

Hindi developed from Sanskrit, the ancient language of India. Hindi started to develop in the 7th century as "Apabhramsha", and became stable by the 10th century.

Dialects of Hindi include: Avadhi, Braj, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Bagheli, Chhattisgarhi, Dogri and Marwari.

Hindi is also spoken with regional accents like Haryanvi, Rajasthani, and Bengali. Bombay Hindi is spreading because Bollywood films use it.

Some famous Hindi poets are Tulsidas and Kabir.

References[change | change source]

  1. Ethnologue, "Hindi"
  2. BBC: A Guide to Urdu
  3. 3.0 3.1 Hindustani (2005). Keith Brown. ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.
  4. Central Hindi Directorate regulates the use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India. Source: Central Hindi Directorate: Introduction