Some scientists spoke of three races of mankind: The Caucasian race living in Europe, North Africa and West Asia, the Mongoloid race living in East Asia, Australia, and the Americas, and the Melaninoids race living in Africa south of the Sahara. Other scientists had different ideas and spoke of four or five races. These ideas were popular from the late 18th century to the middle of the 20th century. Because these ideas belong to former times, they are called historical definitions of race or historical race concepts.
19th century[change | change source]
- the Ethiopian/black race.
- the Caucasian race/white race
- the Mongolian/yellow race
- the American/red race
- the Malayan/brown race
Middle of the 20th century[change | change source]
The mid-twentieth century racial classification by American anthropologist Carleton S. Coon, divided humanity into five races:
- Negroid (Black) race
- Australoid (Australian Aborigine and Papuan) race
- Capoid (Bushmen/Hottentots) race
- Mongoloid (Oriental/Amerindian) race
- Caucasoid (White) race
Racism[change | change source]
There was much prejudice based upon this way of looking at the world. The Europeans and Asians both regarded themselves as superior to the other skin colors. Racism, a non-scientific theory or ideology, was that a particular race was superior or inferior. It argued that in the races that make up the human race, there are deep, biologically determined differences. It also states races should live separately and not intermarry. A supporter of racism is called a racist. These attitudes in turn supported the horrors of African slavery, Apartheid, the Jim Crow laws, Nazism and Japanese imperialism.
References[change | change source]
- American Association of Physical Anthropologists (27 March 2019). "AAPA Statement on Race and Racism". American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
- Templeton, A. (2016). EVOLUTION AND NOTIONS OF HUMAN RACE. In Losos J. & Lenski R. (Eds.), How Evolution Shapes Our Lives: Essays on Biology and Society (pp. 346-361). Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv7h0s6j.26. That this view reflects the consenus among American anthropologists is stated in: Wagner, Jennifer K.; Yu, Joon-Ho; Ifekwunigwe, Jayne O.; Harrell, Tanya M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Royal, Charmaine D. (February 2017). "Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 162 (2): 318–327. doi:10.1002/ajpa.23120. PMC 5299519. PMID 27874171.
- The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. Google Books The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
- American Association of Physical Anthropologists (27 March 2019). "AAPA Statement on Race and Racism". American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
Instead, the Western concept of race must be understood as a classification system that emerged from, and in support of, European colonialism, oppression, and discrimination.