History of Russia

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The history of Russia begins with the East Slavs, Turkic, and the Finno-Ugric peoples.[1][2][3][4] Parts of Southern Russia around the Black sea were settled by Greeks and Romans until about the 3rd century. Huns and Turkic tribes invaded the regions around the Black sea until the 10th century. Eastern Slavs then immigrated to the region. Vikings created the Kievan Rus.[5] In the 13th century, Mongols conquered the region and created the Golden Horde. The Mongols ruled until the 15th century. The tsardom of Russia and Russian empire were then created. Poland-Lithuania invaded Moscow, but Russia eventually drove them out. Russia expanded more west and east into Siberia. Napoleon tried to invade Russia during the winter but failed. Russia fought against Germany in WW1. In 1917, the October Revolution happened, and the communists led by Lenin created the Soviet Union. In WW2, Hitler also failed to invade Russia. Russia occupied East Germany, Poland, and most of East Europe during the Cold War. It became a big rival of the United States. In the 1990s, the Union ended, with things like the Yugoslavia revolution, and became modern Russia. In 2014 Russia annexed Crimea from the Ukraine and faced sanctions from US and others because of it.

Greece and Rome (before 3 c)[change | change source]

In the 8th century BCE, Greek merchants migrated to Tanais and Phanagoria.[6] The Bosporan Kingdom (a Greek kingdom[7]) became part of the Roman Empire. In the 2nd century AD Germanic Goths migrated to the Black Sea. In the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, the Gothic Oium existed in Southern Russia until it was conquered by Huns.

Hun and Turkic colonization (3 c - 10 c)[change | change source]

Turkic Khazar empire of Russia. The Khazars came from the East around Central Asia and Mongolia.

Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom was also invaded by Eastern nomads like the Huns and Turkish Avars.[8]

A Turkic people, the Khazars, conquered the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas up to the 8th century.[9] They were known for their laws, tolerance, and cosmopolitanism.[10] The Khazars traded with the Baltic and the Muslim Abbasid empire centered in Baghdad.[11] They were important allies of the Byzantine Empire,[12] and helped win wars against Arab Caliphates.[9][13] In the 8th century, the Khazars became Jewish.[13]

Eastern Slavs (7 c - 13 c)[change | change source]

Tribes in Russia at the arrival of the Varangians and before Slavic colonization

Some of the ancestors of the modern Russians were the Slavic tribes. They came from the forests of the Pripet Marshes.[14] The Early East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia by moving from Kiev towards present-day Suzdal and Murom and then from Polotsk towards Novgorod and Rostov.[15]

From the 7th century onwards, East Slavs were the majority of Western Russia.[15] They mixed slowly and peacefully with the native Finno-Ugric tribes, such as the Merya,[16] the Muromians,[17] and the Meshchera.[18]

The Cyrillic alphabet, invented in modern Bulgaria in the 9th century, also spread during this period.

Kievan Rus' (882–1283)[change | change source]

Vikings or Varangians[19] did piracy and trade throughout Northern Europe. In the mid-9th century, they conquered the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.[20] A Varangian named Rurik became ruler of Novgorod in about 860,[21] before they moved south and conquered Kiev,[22] which had been previously belonged to the Turkic Khazars.[23] Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav then conquered the East Slavic tribes, destroyed the Khazar khaganate, and fought wars against Byzantium and Persia.

Thus, Rus' was born in the 9th century along the Dnieper River valley.[21] The Kievan Rus' controlled the trade for furs, wax, and slaves between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire along the Volkhov and Dnieper Rivers.[21]

Near the 11th century, the Norse ruling class mixed with the Eastern Slavs.[24] The Slavs absorbed Greek Christian influences when trying to loot Constantinople.[25] Svyatoslav I claimed victory in one such campaign; he also defeated the Khazars on the Volga.[26] The Byzantine Empire was declining but would influence Russia culturally.

Kievan Rus' after the Council of Liubech in 1097

For example through the Byzantine, the Kievan Rus' introduced the Slavic variant of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity.[21] They became Christian in 988.[27][28]

Then Yaroslav the Wise wrote some laws.[29]

By the 11th century, Yaroslav the Wise helped improve the economy and literature.[30] The Russian language was not that influenced by Greek and Latin.[21] Church Slavonic was used directly in liturgy instead.[31]

A nomadic Turkic people, the Kipchaks (or Cumans), replaced earlier Pechenegs in the south steppe at the end of the 11th century. They founded a nomadic state along the Black Sea (Desht-e-Kipchak). The Kipchaks and Kievs fought.

Mongol colonization (13 c - 15 c)[change | change source]

The Sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in February 1238: a miniature from the 16th-century chronicle

The Rus were conquered by the Mongol Golden Horde in the 13th century. Kiev was destroyed.[32] Halych-Volhynia would eventually be absorbed into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth,[21] while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and independent Novgorod Republic became the basis for modern Russia.[21]

In 1223, the disunited southern princes faced a Mongol raiding party at the Kalka River and were soundly defeated.[33] In 1237–1238 the Mongols burnt down the city of Vladimir (4 February 1238)[34] and other major cities of northeast Russia, defeated the Russians at the Sit' River,[35] and then moved west to conquer Poland and Hungary. By then they had conquered most of Russia.[36][37]

The Mongols destroyed the cities. Some like Kiev and Vladimir never recovered.[32] The new cities of Moscow,[38] Tver[38] and Nizhny Novgorod[39] began to compete for hegemony in the Mongol-dominated Russia. The Golden Horde was established in the 14th century.[40] Mongol domination of the Russia, along with demands of tribute from Russian princes, continued until about 1480.[38]

Russo-Tatar relations[change | change source]

After the fall of the Turkic Khazars in the 10th century, the Volga were conquered by the Volga Bulgaria, part of Greater Bulgaria. In the 10th century the Turks converted to Islam and traded with the Middle East and Central Asia.[source?] After the Mongol invasions of the 1230s, Volga Bulgaria was annexed by the Golden Horde. Its population evolved into the modern Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars.

The Mongols controlled Russia and Volga Bulgaria from their western capital at Sarai,[41] one of the largest cities of the medieval world. Russian princes had to pay tribute to the Mongols of the Golden Horde, commonly called Tatars.[41] The Russian Orthodox Church even experienced a revival under the Metropolitan Alexis and Sergius of Radonezh.

The Mongols influenced Russian military tactics and transportation. Under Mongol occupation, Russia developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization.[21]

Grand Duchy of Moscow (1283–1547)[change | change source]

Daniil Aleksandrovich founded Moscow (Muscovy).[38] They were first a vassal to the Mongols and Tatars.

The Mongol rulers gave them the title of Grand Prince of Moscow and made them collect tribute from the Russian principalities. Moscow became the center of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Ivan III, the Great[change | change source]

In the 15th century, the princes of Moscow continued to consolidate Russian land to increase their population and wealth. The most successful one was Ivan III,[38] who laid the foundations for the Russian nation. Ivan competed with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania for control over the upper Dnieper and Oka River basins.[42][43]

Ivan III was able to annex Novgorod and Tver.[44] As a result, the Grand Duchy of Moscow tripled in size.[38]

Ivan then overthrew the ruling Tatars and Golden Horde, now divided into several Khanates and hordes. Ivan wanted to protect the southern borders from the Crimean Tatars and other Turko-Mongol armies.[45] He built Great Abatis Belt, gave land to nobles in exchange for military service. This expanded the army.

Eventually Ivan IV became the first Russian ruler to call theirself tsar.[43][38]

Ivan III tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde over the Rus', revived the Moscow Kremlin. But he was also anti-Catholic and isolated Russia from western civilization.[46]

Timurid empire (14 c)[change | change source]

In the 14th century, Timur conquered parts of Southern Russia and occupied Moscow for some time.

Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721)[change | change source]

Ivan IV the Terrible[change | change source]

"Ivan the Terrible" increased the powers of the tsar.[47][48] He got rid of many people he did not like for the smallest things.[38] But he helped develop Russia and adapt new laws[49] and decreased the influence of the church.[50][51]

Ivan annexed the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia.[52] Russia now had Muslim Tatar populations and became a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. The Stroganov family also controlled the Urals and hired Russian Cossacks to colonize Siberia.[53]

Ivan divided Russia and created the oprichnina. There Ivan killed nobles in the Massacre of Novgorod in 1570. Military losses, disease, and lack of food weakened Russia. The Crimean Tatars were able to loot central Russian and burn down Moscow in 1571.[54] In 1572 Ivan stopped.[55][56]

At the end of Ivan IV's rule the Polish–Lithuanian and Swedish armies invaded northwestern Russia.[57]

Time of Troubles[change | change source]

There then were many civil wars and foreign invasions known as the "Time of Troubles" (1606–13).[38] Extremely cold summers (1601–1603) destroyed crops,[58] which led to the Russian famine of 1601–1603 and increased the chaos.[59]

During the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618), Polish–Lithuanian forces invaded Moscow and appointed puppet rulers.[60][61][62][63][64]

But Russia finally took back Moscow on 4 November [O.S. 22 October] 1612.[65][66][67]

Romanov dynasty[change | change source]

In February 1613, Michael Romanov was elected as ruler. The Romanov dynasty ruled Russia until 1917.

Russian Empire (1721–1917)[change | change source]

Russia expanded a lot during the 17th century, including the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War (1654–67), and the Russian conquest of Siberia. Russia gained most of its territory from Siberia.[68]

Russian revolution (1917–1922)[change | change source]

The Tsarist system was completely overthrown in February 1917 in the October Revolution.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "History of Russia – Slavs in Russia: from 1500 BC". Historyworld.net. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  2. "Finno-Ugric Peoples". Estonia.eu. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  3. "Elupuu – The Finno-Ugric Peoples". Elupuu. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  4. Hosking (1998). Russian Nationalism, Past and Present. p. 8.
  5. http://www.hrono.info/dokum/1000dok/povest1.php
  6. Esther Jacobson, The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World, Brill, 1995, p. 38. ISBN 90-04-09856-9.
  7. Gocha R. Tsetskhladze (ed), The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology, F. Steiner, 1998, p. 48. ISBN 3-515-07302-7.
  8. Peter Turchin, Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall, Princeton University Press, 2003, pp. 185–186. ISBN 0-691-11669-5.
  9. 9.0 9.1 David Christian, A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia, Blackwell Publishing, 1998, pp. 286–288. ISBN 0-631-20814-3.
  10. Frank Northen Magill, Magill's Literary Annual, 1977 Salem Press, 1977, p. 818. ISBN 0-89356-077-4.
  11. André Wink, Al-Hind, the Making of an Indo-Islamic World, Brill, 2004, p. 35. ISBN 90-04-09249-8.
  12. András Róna-Tas, Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History, Central European University Press, 1999, p. 257. ISBN 963-9116-48-3.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Daniel H. Frank and Oliver Leaman, History of Jewish Philosophy, Routledge, 1997, p. 196. ISBN 0-415-08064-9.
  14. For a discussion of Slavic origins, see Paul M. Barford, The Early Slavs, Cornell University Press, 2001, pp. 15–16. ISBN 0-8014-3977-9.
  15. 15.0 15.1 David Christian, op cit., pp. 6–7.
  16. Henry K Paszkiewicz, The Making of the Russian Nation, Darton, Longman & Todd, 1963, p. 262.
  17. Rosamond McKitterick, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 497. ISBN 0-521-36447-7.
  18. Aleksandr Lʹvovich Mongaĭt, Archeology in the U.S.S.R., Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959, p. 335.
  19. See, for instance, Viking (Varangian) Oleg and Viking (Varangian) Rurik at Encyclopædia Britannica.
  20. Dimitri Obolensky, Byzantium and the Slavs, St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1994, p. 42. ISBN 0-88141-008-X.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, excerpted from Glenn E. Curtis (ed.), Russia: A Country Study, Department of the Army, 1998. ISBN 0-16-061212-8.
  22. James Westfall Thompson, and Edgar Nathaniel Johnson, An Introduction to Medieval Europe, 300–1500, W. W. Norton & Co., 1937, p. 268.
  23. David Christian, Op cit. p. 343.
  24. Particularly among the aristocracy. See World History. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
  25. See Dimitri Obolensky, "Russia's Byzantine Heritage," in Byzantium & the Slavs, St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1994, pp. 75–108. ISBN 0-88141-008-X.
  26. Serhii Plokhy, The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 13. ISBN 0-521-86403-8.
  27. See The Christianisation of Russia, an account of Vladimir's baptism, followed by the baptism of the entire population of Kiev, as described in The Russian Primary Chronicle.
  28. P. N. Fedosejev, The Comparative Historical Method in Soviet Mediaeval Studies, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1979. p. 90.
  29. Gordon Bob Smith, Reforming the Russian Legal System, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 2–3. ISBN 0-521-45669-X.
  30. Russell Bova, Russia and Western Civilization: Cultural and Historical Encounters, M.E. Sharpe, 2003, p. 13. ISBN 0-7656-0976-2.
  31. Timothy Ware: The Orthodox Church (Penguin, 1963; 1997 revision) p.74
  32. 32.0 32.1 In 1240. See Michael Franklin Hamm, Kiev: A Portrait, 1800–1917, Princeton University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-691-02585-1
  33. See David Nicolle, Kalka River 1223: Genghis Khan's Mongols Invade Russia, Osprey Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84176-233-4.
  34. Tatyana Shvetsova, The Vladimir Suzdal Principality Archived 20 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
  35. Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980–1584, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 139. ISBN 0-521-36832-4.
  36. The Destruction of Kiev
  37. Jennifer Mills, The Hanseatic League in the Eastern Baltic Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, SCAND 344, May 1998. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 38.6 38.7 38.8 Muscovy, excerpted from Glenn E. Curtis (ed.), Russia: A Country Study, Department of the Army, 1998. ISBN 0-16-061212-8.
  39. Sigfried J. De Laet, History of Humanity: Scientific and Cultural Development, Taylor & Francis, 2005, p. 196. ISBN 92-3-102814-6.
  40. The Battle of Kulikovo (8 September 1380) Archived 7 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
  41. 41.0 41.1 "History of the Mongols". History World. Retrieved 26 July 2007.
  42. Ivan III Archived 6 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Ivan III, Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007
  44. Donald Ostrowski in The Cambridge History of Russia, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 234. ISBN 0-521-81227-5.
  45. The Tatar Khanate of Crimea
  46. J. L. I. Fennell, Ivan the Great of Moscow (1961) p 354
  47. Tim McDaniel. "Autocracy, Modernization, and Revolution in Russia and Iran". Princeton University Press, 14 July 2014 ISBN 1400861624 p 64
  48. Kevin O'Connor. "The History of the Baltic States" Greenwood Publishing Group, 1 January 2003 ISBN 0313323550 p 23
  49. "Ivan the Terrible". Minnesota State University Mankato. Archived from the original on 18 July 2007. Retrieved 23 July 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  50. Zenkovsky, Serge A. (October 1957). "The Russian Church Schism: Its Background and Repercussions". Russian Review (Blackwell Publishing) 16 (4): 37. doi:10.2307/125748. 
  51. Skrynnikov R., "Ivan Grosny", p.58, M., AST, 2001
  52. Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980–1584, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 395. ISBN 0-521-36832-4.
  53. Siberian Chronicles, Строгановская Сибирская Летопись. изд. Спаским, СПб, 1821
  54. Skrynnikov R. "Ivan Grozny", M, 2001, pp.142–173
  55. Robert I. Frost The Northern Wars: 1558–1721 (Longman, 2000) pp.26–27
  56. Moscow – Historical background
  57. Skrynnikov. "Ivan Grozny", M, 2001, pp.222–223
  58. Borisenkov E, Pasetski V. "The thousand-year annals of the extreme meteorological phenomena", ISBN 5-244-00212-0, p.190
  59. Solovyov. "History of Russia...", v.7, pp.533–535, pp.543–568
  60. Lev Gumilev (1992), Ot Rusi k Rossii. Ocherki e'tnicheskoj istorii [From Rus' to Russia], Moscow: Ekopros.
  61. Michel Heller (1997), Histoire de la Russie et de son empire [A history of Russia and its empire], Paris: Plon.
  62. George Vernadsky, "A History of Russia", Volume 5, Yale University Press, (1969). Russian translation
  63. Mikolaj Marchocki "Historia Wojny Moskiewskiej", ch. "Slaughter in the capital", Russian translation
  64. Sergey Solovyov. History of Russia... Vol. 8, p. 847
  65. Chester S L Dunning, Russia's First Civil War: The Time of Troubles and the Founding of the Romanov Dynasty, p. 434 Penn State Press, 2001, ISBN 0-271-02074-1
  66. Troubles, Time of." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006
  67. Pozharski, Dmitri Mikhailovich, Prince", Columbia Encyclopedia
  68. Brian Catchpole, A Map History of Russia (1974) pp 8–31; MArtin Gilbert, Atlas of Russian history (1993) pp 33–74.