Holy Roman Empire
|Holy Roman Empire
Imperium Romanum Sacrum
Heiliges Römisches Reich
|Capital||No official capital; Vienna (de facto)|
|Language(s)||Latin, Germanic, Romance and Slavic dialects|
|Religion||Roman Catholicism (emperor and other imperial princes)
Lutheranism and Calvinism (several imperial princes)
|Emperor||For the full list of Holy Roman Emperors, see Holy Roman Emperor.|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
| - Otto I crowned
Emperor of the Romans
|2 February, 962 AD 962|
| - Conrad II assumes
crown of Burgundy
|- Peace of Augsburg||1555|
|- Peace of Westphalia||24 October 1648|
- The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire.
The Holy Roman Empire (German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, or in the 15th century: Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation) was a group of regions and free cities in central Europe which all came under the rule of an emperor who was elected by the princes and magistrates of the regions and cities within the empire. When Charlemagne died, his Frankish Empire was given to his children and divided into three different countries: West Francia, Lotharingia and East Francia. The Holy Empire started when Otto I of East Francia became Holy Emperor in 962, and it was ended by Napoleon in 1806. The emperors claimed to be heirs of Charlemagne and that the Empire dates from 800, when Charlemagne became Frankish Emperor.
In the 17th century the Empire was shattered by the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). Nearly thirty percent of the population of the Empire was killed. The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation lost parts of its territory.
Until the 13th century, the Holy Roman Empire was powerful. Later, all the duchies and counties inside the Empire started to get more power. At the end, the Emperors Had little real power any more, and the country existed only in name. The last emperor abolished the empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Empire was in fact Germanic and not Roman since it was mainly in the region's of present-day Germany and Austria. It was not really holy since after 1530, no emperors were crowned by the Pope; the last being Charles V. It was only really an Empire by name as the territories it covered were mostly independent themselves. The Empire had its own central government and armed forces that acted as one. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg before it fell in 1806. Napoleon forced the emperor to abdicate when France began invading the Holy Roman Empire during the First French Empire. The Emperor made himself emperor of Austria and ended the Holy Roman Empire.
The Empire was one of the rare countries in Europe that had an elective monarchy. This meant that the Emperor was chosen by a group of princes. Common practice was to just elect the deceased Emperor or Empress 's heir to the throne.
References[change | change source]
- Names of the Holy Roman Empire in other languages: German: Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nationen, Latin: Imperium Romanum Sacrum). Google Books
- officially recognized since the Peace of Augsburg 1555
- officiallly recognozed since the Peace of Westphalia 1648
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